Lesson Worksheet: Structure of the Genome Biology

In this worksheet, we will practice describing the composition of eukaryotic and prokaryotic genomes.

Q1:

What is the primary purpose of genes in a eukaryotic genome?

  • ATo act as regulatory elements and control what sections of DNA are transcribed and translated
  • BTo provide the instructions for making functional units like proteins or RNA molecules
  • CTo comprise the majority of the DNA in the genome
  • DTo provide long sections of noncoding DNA

Q2:

Which of the following correctly links genes and DNA?

  • AOne molecule of DNA (chromosome) contains many genes.
  • BOne gene contains many different DNA molecules (chromosomes).

Q3:

Which of the following statements is true about the genome of a prokaryote?

  • AAll prokaryotic genomes are smaller in size than any eukaryotic genome.
  • BThe majority of DNA in a prokaryotic genome codes for proteins.
  • CThe size of the genome increases linearly with the size of the organism.
  • DThe genome of a prokaryote is comprised of RNA only.
  • EOver 70% of the DNA in a prokaryotic genome does not code for proteins.

Q4:

What is meant by noncoding DNA?

  • ADNA that cannot be extracted from the organism
  • BDNA that does not contain instructions for making proteins
  • CDNA that is not present within the genome
  • DDNA that is single stranded rather than double stranded
  • EDNA that has no use and is only found within prokaryotic organisms

Q5:

Which of the following statements is true about the genome of a eukaryotic organism?

  • AThe size of the genome increases linearly with the size of the organism.
  • BOver 90% of the DNA in a eukaryotic genome will code for proteins.
  • CThe percentage of the genome that codes for proteins is lower in a eukaryotic genome than in a prokaryotic one.
  • DThe genome will not contain any sections of repeated DNA.
  • EHumans have the highest number of protein-coding genes of any eukaryotic organism.

Q6:

What is the correlation between the complexity of an organism and the number of protein-coding genes it contains?

  • AThe more complex an organism is, the more protein-coding genes it will contain.
  • BThe more complex an organism is, the fewer protein-coding genes it will contain.
  • CThere is no correlation between complexity and number of protein-coding genes.

Q7:

What is meant by repetitive DNA?

  • AGenes that are repeated in several copies throughout the genome
  • BCopies of the genome repeated in a cell and found throughout the organism
  • CNucleotides that are used more than once within DNA
  • DConsecutive sequences of DNA that repeat themselves and that are found throughout the genome

Q8:

True or False: All genes exist in one single copy in most of the genomes of eukaryotic organisms.

  • ATrue
  • BFalse

Q9:

Fill in the blank: Part of an organism’s DNA that does not code for proteins is referred to as .

  • Acompacted DNA
  • Bnoncoding DNA
  • Cnoncoding RNA
  • Dcoding RNA

Q10:

True or False: The genome of a eukaryotic organism is the same in a cardiac cell and a liver cell within one individual.

  • ATrue
  • BFalse

This lesson includes 19 additional questions for subscribers.

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