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Lesson Worksheet: Structure of the Genome Biology
In this worksheet, we will practice describing the composition of eukaryotic and prokaryotic genomes.
What is the primary purpose of genes in a eukaryotic genome?
- ATo act as regulatory elements and control what sections of DNA are transcribed and translated
- BTo provide the instructions for making functional units like proteins or RNA molecules
- CTo comprise the majority of the DNA in the genome
- DTo provide long sections of noncoding DNA
Which of the following correctly links genes and DNA?
- AOne molecule of DNA (chromosome) contains many genes.
- BOne gene contains many different DNA molecules (chromosomes).
Which of the following statements is true about the genome of a prokaryote?
- AAll prokaryotic genomes are smaller in size than any eukaryotic genome.
- BThe majority of DNA in a prokaryotic genome codes for proteins.
- CThe size of the genome increases linearly with the size of the organism.
- DThe genome of a prokaryote is comprised of RNA only.
- EOver of the DNA in a prokaryotic genome does not code for proteins.
What is meant by noncoding DNA?
- ADNA that cannot be extracted from the organism
- BDNA that does not contain instructions for making proteins
- CDNA that is not present within the genome
- DDNA that is single stranded rather than double stranded
- EDNA that has no use and is only found within prokaryotic organisms
Which of the following statements is true about the genome of a eukaryotic organism?
- AThe size of the genome increases linearly with the size of the organism.
- BOver of the DNA in a eukaryotic genome will code for proteins.
- CThe percentage of the genome that codes for proteins is lower in a eukaryotic genome than in a prokaryotic one.
- DThe genome will not contain any sections of repeated DNA.
- EHumans have the highest number of protein-coding genes of any eukaryotic organism.
What is the correlation between the complexity of an organism and the number of protein-coding genes it contains?
- AThe more complex an organism is, the more protein-coding genes it will contain.
- BThe more complex an organism is, the fewer protein-coding genes it will contain.
- CThere is no correlation between complexity and number of protein-coding genes.
What is meant by repetitive DNA?
- AGenes that are repeated in several copies throughout the genome
- BCopies of the genome repeated in a cell and found throughout the organism
- CNucleotides that are used more than once within DNA
- DConsecutive sequences of DNA that repeat themselves and that are found throughout the genome
True or False: All genes exist in one single copy in most of the genomes of eukaryotic organisms.
Fill in the blank: Part of an organism’s DNA that does not code for proteins is referred to as .
- Acompacted DNA
- Bnoncoding DNA
- Cnoncoding RNA
- Dcoding RNA
True or False: The genome of a eukaryotic organism is the same in a cardiac cell and a liver cell within one individual.