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Worksheet: Second Law of Thermodynamics


Which of the following statements does not conform to the laws of thermodynamics?

  • AThe energy of the universe always remains constant in any change-of-state process.
  • BThe entropy of the universe always increases in a spontaneous change-of-state process.
  • CThe entropy of a system always decreases with a decrease in the temperature of the system.
  • DThe entropy of any chemically pure substance approaches a value of zero as the temperature of the substance approaches a value of 0 K, and at 𝑇 = 0 K , 𝑆 = 0 .


Which of the following played a significant role in developing the concept of entropy and in formulating the second law of thermodynamics?

  • AThe equipartition-of-energy principle
  • BThe Nernst heat theorem
  • CThe Heisenberg uncertainty principle
  • DThe formulation and analysis of the Carnot cycle and heat engine


Which of the following represents a necessary condition for a chemical reaction to proceed from reactants to products spontaneously?

  • AThe reaction must be exothermic.
  • BThe reaction must be endothermic.
  • CThe standard entropy change, Ξ” 𝑆 ⦡ π‘Ÿ , for the chemical reaction must be β‰₯ 0.
  • DThe total entropy of the reacting chemical system and its surroundings must increase.