Worksheet: Metallic Bonding

In this worksheet, we will practice describing metallic bonding in terms of electrostatic attraction between nuclei and a sea of delocalized electrons.

Q1:

Which of the following is the best description of delocalized electrons in metallic bonding?

  • ACore electrons bound to metal ions
  • BCore and valence electrons that can move freely between metal ions
  • CValence electrons that can move freely between metal ions
  • DValence electrons bound to metal ions
  • ECore electrons that can move freely between metal ions

Q2:

In a sample of calcium metal, how many electrons does an atom of calcium contribute to the sea of delocalized electrons?

Q3:

In a sample of potassium metal, how many electrons does an atom of potassium contribute to the sea of delocalized electrons?

Q4:

Metals are typically shiny and electrically conductive, while ionic solids are dull and electrically insulating. Which feature of metals is responsible for this difference?

  • AThe delocalized electrons
  • BThe number of neutrons in the nuclei
  • CThe charges of the positive ions
  • DThe atomic mass of the nuclei
  • EThe crystal lattice of positive ions

Q5:

In metallic bonding, what is the dominant form of attraction between the lattice of positive ions and sea of delocalized electrons?

  • AGravitational
  • BNuclear
  • CMagnetic
  • DElectrostatic
  • ECovalent

Q6:

Shown in the diagram are the electronic structures of lithium and calcium atoms.

The melting temperature of lithium is 181C, while that of calcium is 842C. Based on the electronic structures of the atoms and the strength of their metallic bonds, explain this difference in melting temperature.

LiCa
  • AMetallic bonds are stronger in lithium as the valence electrons are closer to the nucleus, so more thermal energy is needed to break up the metal lattice.
  • BMetallic bonds are stronger in lithium as there are fewer valence electrons, so more thermal energy is needed to break up the metal lattice.
  • CMetallic bonds are weaker in lithium as there are fewer valence electrons, so less thermal energy is needed to break up the metal lattice.
  • DMetallic bonds are stronger in lithium as there are more valence electrons, so more thermal energy is needed to break up the metal lattice.
  • EMetallic bonds are weaker in lithium as the valence electrons are closer to the nucleus, so less thermal energy is needed to break up the metal lattice.

Q7:

Which of the following atoms would form a solid metal with the highest melting point?

  • A
  • B
  • C
  • D
  • E

Q8:

Which of the following atoms would form a solid metal with the highest electrical conductivity?

  • A
  • B
  • C
  • D
  • E

Q9:

Which of the following atoms would form a solid metal with the lowest thermal conductivity?

  • A
  • B
  • C
  • D
  • E

Q10:

Which of the following is the best description of electrical conduction in a solid metal?

  • APositive ions flow through a lattice of negative ions.
  • BNegatively charged elementary particles flow through a lattice of positive ions.
  • CPositively charged elementary particles flow through a lattice of positive ions.
  • DPositively charged elementary particles flow through a lattice of negative ions.
  • ENegative ions flow through a lattice of positive ions.

Q11:

Both magnesium and aluminum are good thermal conductors. However, the thermal conductivity of magnesium is lower than that of aluminum.

Why are magnesium and aluminum good thermal conductors?

  • AThermal energy is conducted via the free movement of delocalized ions.
  • BThermal energy is conducted via the vibrations of metal ions.
  • CThermal energy is conducted via the ionization of metal atoms.
  • DThermal energy is conducted via the free movement of delocalized electrons.
  • EThermal energy is conducted via the vibrations of delocalized electrons.

Why does magnesium have a lower thermal conductivity than pure aluminum?

  • AMagnesium atoms are heavier.
  • BMagnesium atoms contain fewer valence electrons.
  • CMagnesium atoms are smaller.
  • DMagnesium atoms are larger.
  • EMagnesium atoms contain more valence electrons.

Q12:

Shown in the diagram are the electronic structures of sodium and potassium atoms.

The melting temperature of sodium is 97.8C, while that of potassium is 63.5C. Based on the electronic structures of the atoms and the strength of their metallic bonds, explain this difference in melting temperature.

NaK
  • AMetallic bonds are weaker in sodium as there are fewer valence electrons, so less thermal energy is needed to break up the metal lattice.
  • BMetallic bonds are stronger in sodium as there are more valence electrons, so more thermal energy is needed to break up the metal lattice.
  • CMetallic bonds are stronger in sodium as the valence electrons are closer to the nucleus, so more thermal energy is needed to break up the metal lattice.
  • DMetallic bonds are weaker in sodium as the valence electrons are closer to the nucleus, so less thermal energy is needed to break up the metal lattice.
  • EMetallic bonds are stronger in sodium as there are fewer valence electrons, so more thermal energy is needed to break up the metal lattice.

Q13:

Which of the following has the smallest effect on the strength of a metallic bond?

  • AThe number of electrons in the metal atoms
  • BThe number of neutrons in the metal atoms
  • CThe number of protons in the metal atoms
  • DThe arrangement of the metal atoms
  • EThe radii of the metal atoms

Q14:

The atoms in a metal can alter their positions when a force is applied, as shown in the diagram.

Which of the following physical properties is a direct result of this behavior?

  • AThermal conductivity
  • BMelting point
  • CDuctility
  • DBrittleness
  • EStrength

Which property of metallic bonding is the least important in allowing this behavior to arise?

  • AMetal atoms are arranged in layers.
  • BMetallic bonds are nondirectional.
  • CMetal atoms are of equal size.
  • DMetallic bonds are very strong.
  • EMetal atoms are arranged in a periodic pattern.

Q15:

The solid elements calcium, rubidium, and phosphorus display different electrical conductivities at room temperature.

Using their symbols, arrange these elements in order of increasing electrical conductivity.

  • AP, Rb, Ca
  • BRb, P, Ca
  • CRb, Ca, P
  • DP, Ca, Rb
  • ECa, Rb, P

How and why does the conductivity of calcium differ from that of rubidium?

  • ACalcium is less conductive as its atoms are smaller.
  • BCalcium is less conductive as its valence electrons are less delocalized.
  • CCalcium is more conductive as its atoms contain more valence electrons.
  • DCalcium is more conductive as its atoms contain more core electrons.
  • ECalcium is less conductive as its valence electrons are higher in energy.

How and why does the conductivity of calcium differ from that of phosphorus?

  • ACalcium is more conductive as its valence electrons are more delocalized.
  • BCalcium is more conductive as its valence electrons are lower in energy.
  • CCalcium is less conductive as its atoms are smaller.
  • DCalcium is less conductive as its atoms contain fewer valence electrons.
  • ECalcium is more conductive as its atoms contain more core electrons.

Q16:

The atoms in metals interact via strong nondirectional metallic bonding to form a dense crystal lattice.

Which of the following is the best definition for the term “strong”?

  • AA small amount of energy is needed to break the bonds.
  • BA large amount of energy is released when the bonds are broken.
  • CA large amount of energy is needed to break the bonds.
  • DA small amount of energy is released when the bonds are broken.

Which of the following is the best definition for the term “nondirectional”?

  • AEach valence electron of an atom is shared equally with one neighboring atom.
  • BEach valence electron of an atom is shared equally with all neighboring atoms.
  • CBonds involve uniform electrostatic attraction between spherical nuclei.
  • DThe valence electrons of an atom are not shared with neighboring atoms.
  • EBonds involve uniform electrostatic attraction between spherical cations and anions.

Which of the following is the best definition for the term “dense”?

  • AAtoms share a large number of electrons with neighboring atoms.
  • BAtoms display large masses.
  • CAtoms are separated by small distances.
  • DAtoms are in contact with a large number of neighboring atoms.
  • EAtoms have small diameters.

Which of the following is the best definition for the term “crystal lattice”?

  • AAtoms are arranged in a repeating pattern.
  • BAtoms are arranged in layers.
  • CAtoms are stationary.
  • DAtoms form bonds of equal length.
  • EAtoms form bonds with many neighboring atoms.

Q17:

Shown in the bar chart are the electrical conductivities of aluminum, magnesium, and sodium.

Using the symbols of the elements, identify the metals X, Y, and Z.

  • AX=Al, Y=Mg, Z=Na
  • BX=Na, Y=Al, Z=Mg
  • CX=Mg, Y=Al, Z=Na
  • DX=Mg, Y=Na, Z=Al
  • EX=Na, Y=Mg, Z=Al

Which of the following atomic properties is most responsible for the variation in conductivity between metals X, Y, and Z?

  • AAtomic mass
  • BBond energy
  • CIonization energy
  • DNumber of core electrons
  • ENumber of valence electrons

Q18:

Metals consist of close-packed atoms and are neutral in charge. However, metallic bonds are often described in terms of interactions between ions and electrons.

Why is it incorrect to refer to metals as ionic materials?

  • AValence electrons in a metal are highly mobile.
  • BIonic materials possess an overall charge.
  • CAtoms in a metal interact equally with the valence electrons.
  • DAtoms in a metal cannot react to form ions.
  • EMetallic bonding does not involve electrostatic attraction.

Why are metallic bonds described as interactions between ions and electrons?

  • AValence electrons can be removed from alternate atoms to produce an ionic lattice.
  • BValence electrons are electrostatically repelled by their parent atoms.
  • CValence electrons are arranged in a periodic lattice around their parent atoms.
  • DValence electrons are cyclically transferred between pairs of bonded atoms.
  • EValence electrons are not localized around their parent atoms.

Which of the following is a similarity between ionic and metallic bonding?

  • AThey involve electrostatic repulsion between ions and electrons.
  • BThey involve nondirectional interactions.
  • CThey involve weak interactions.
  • DThey involve shared bonding electrons.
  • EThey involve oppositely charged ions.

Which of the following is a difference between ionic and metallic bonding?

  • AOnly ionic bonding involves electrostatic repulsion between electrons.
  • BOnly ionic bonding involves electrostatic attraction between ions.
  • COnly ionic bonding involves electrostatic repulsion between ions.
  • DOnly ionic bonding involves electrostatic attraction between ions and electrons.
  • EOnly ionic bonding involves delocalized electrons.

Q19:

Which of the following statements is true?

  • AMetals containing smaller atoms are usually easier to melt.
  • BMetals containing more core electrons are usually less thermally conductive.
  • CMetals containing two or more different elements are usually easier to roll into sheets.
  • DMetals containing ions with more positive charge are usually more electrically conductive.
  • EMetals containing more valence electrons are usually easier to cut.

Q20:

Covalent and metallic bonding both involve interactions between atomic nuclei and valence electrons.

Which of the following is a similarity between covalent and metallic bonding?

  • AThey can link atoms into periodic lattices.
  • BThey are easily broken at room temperature.
  • CThey always involve a “sea” of delocalized electrons.
  • DThey are nondirectional.
  • EThey can link atoms into separate molecules.

Which of the following is a difference between covalent and metallic bonding?

  • AOnly covalent bonding can occur between atoms of different elements.
  • BOnly metallic bonding can involve more than one valence electron per bonded atom.
  • COnly metallic bonding can occur between oppositely charged ions.
  • DOnly covalent bonding can produce materials that are electrically insulating.
  • EOnly metallic bonding can produce materials that are electrically conductive.

Q21:

A metal’s properties can be changed by mixing that metal with another element. Which of the following is the name given to the resulting mixture?

  • AA gel
  • BAn alloy
  • CAn emulsion
  • DA suspension
  • EA metalloid

Q22:

Which of the following is not a property of metals that result from metallic bonding?

  • ALow density
  • BMalleability and ductility
  • CGood conduction of electricity
  • DHigh melting and boiling points
  • EGood conduction of heat

Q23:

Which of these statements best describes why alloys are important?

  • AAlloys do not have metallic bonding.
  • BAlloys keep the regular structure of pure metals.
  • CAlloys often have better properties than individual metals.
  • DAlloys are usually cheaper to produce than pure metals.
  • EAlloys are more reactive than pure metals.

Q24:

Which of the following diagrams best represents metallic bonding?

  • A
  • B
  • C
  • D

Nagwa uses cookies to ensure you get the best experience on our website. Learn more about our Privacy Policy.