Lesson Worksheet: Groundwater and Soil Formation Geology

In this worksheet, we will practice describing groundwater and the factors affecting its movements, explaining its degradational and depositional effects, and identifying the different types of soil and their components.


True or False: Stalactites and stalagmites form due to the precipitation of dissolved minerals in groundwater.

  • ATrue
  • BFalse


Which of the following describes the ability of rocks to pass water through their pores?

  • APorosity
  • BRock inclination
  • CRock cement
  • DPermeability


How can groundwater promote the mechanical degradation of rocks?

  • AIt causes them to become saturated and sturdier.
  • BIt causes them to become saturated, which can result in slope failure or slumping.
  • CIt causes them to be replaced with more resistant minerals.
  • DIt causes them to dissolve to form caves.


Where are stalagmites found?

  • AOn the seabed
  • BOn the riverbed
  • COn the roof of a cave
  • DOn the floor of a cave


What chemical compound when dissolved in groundwater can lead to the dissolution of limestone?

  • ANitrogen dioxide
  • BCarbon dioxide
  • CIron oxide
  • DCarbon monoxide


Which of the following processes are driven by groundwater during the petrification of wood?

  • ADegradation and transportation
  • BDegradation and sedimentation
  • CSedimentation and transportation
  • DDegradation and compaction


During the petrification of wood, minerals dissolved in groundwater precipitate out and replace its organic matter. Which minerals most commonly replace this organic matter?

  • ASilicates
  • BCarbonates
  • CSulfides
  • DOxides


What is the predominant mineral that makes up stalagmites and stalactites?

  • ACalcite
  • BQuartz
  • CFeldspar
  • DMica


Which of the following landforms form due to the chemical degradation effect of groundwater on limestone?

  • AValleys
  • BMeanders
  • CCanyons
  • DCaves


True or False: In caves, stalactites grow downward from the ceiling, while stalagmites grow from the floor.

  • ATrue
  • BFalse

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