Worksheet: Hybridization in Molecular Orbital Theory

In this worksheet, we will practice explaining the origin of hybrid orbitals based on electron pair energies and the symmetries of molecular orbitals.

Q1:

How many bonds can an atom form using sp hybrid orbitals?

Q2:

How many bonds can an atom form using sp3 hybrid orbitals?

Q3:

How many bonds can an atom form using sp3d hybrid orbitals?

Q4:

In the valence bond theory description of methane, which of the following statements is not a valid justification for the use of sp3 hybrid orbitals?

  • AThe C H bonds are exactly equivalent, so they must be generated by orbitals of equal energy.
  • BThe s orbital of each H atom must overlap with the s orbital of the C atom and at least one p orbital.
  • COverlap of the H s orbitals with the three p orbitals of the C atom would produce bonds at 9 0 to each other.
  • DA C atom could not form four bonds without hybridization, as the energy for promoting a 2s electron to the 2p subshell is too large.
  • EA tetrahedral bonding geometry with zero dipole moment is only possible if electron density is distributed equally between the four bonds.

Q5:

Which of the following correctly illustrates the energies of the orbitals of the carbon atom in C O 2 ?

  • A
  • B
  • C
  • D
  • E

Q6:

Based on the outer shell hybridisation of the nitrogen, amines have what geometry?

  • ATwo electrons in the 2s orbital and three bonding pairs of electrons in the three 2p orbitals.
  • BA structure with three sp2 orbitals in a trigonal planar arrangement and one perpendicular p-orbital with 2 electrons.
  • CIt is incorrect to equate hybridisation with molecular geometry.
  • DTetrahedral, just like carbon and oxygen, with four energetically equivalent orbitals pointing at the apexes of a tetrahedron.

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