Worksheet: Kidney Failure

In this worksheet, we will practice describing and evaluating the treatments for kidney failure.

Q1:

Kidney failure can be treated with a long-term solution involving a medical procedure. What medical procedure can be used to treat a small amount of kidney failure patients?

  • ALimb amputations
  • BStents
  • CKidney transplant
  • DHormone replacement surgery
  • EPancreas transplant

Q2:

What is the current, most commonly used method for treating kidney failure?

  • AInsulin injections
  • BRadiotherapy
  • CDialysis
  • DChemotherapy
  • EStem cell transplants

Q3:

The table provided shows the differences between the concentrations of certain substances in blood and in dialysis fluid.

SubstanceTypical Concentration in Blood (mg/dL)Typical Concentration in Dialysis Fluid (mg/dL)
Glucose100100
Calcium5.02.5
Sodium140140
Urea200

Why is it important the concentration of glucose is the same in the blood and in the dialysis fluid?

  • ASo glucose does not diffuse out of the blood
  • BSo glucose can be actively transported out of the blood
  • CSo glucose can be actively transported into the blood
  • DSo glucose can be broken down in the fluid to provide energy for the dialyzer

Which of the following statements is correct about the movement of substances?

  • ASodium will move down its concentration gradient and into the blood.
  • BThere will be no net movement of glucose and sodium.
  • CThere will be no net movement of urea and calcium.
  • DCalcium will move down its concentration gradient from the fluid and into the blood.

What will happen to the urea?

  • AThere will be no net movement of urea.
  • BIt will move down its concentration gradient from the fluid and into the blood.
  • CIt will be actively transported out of the blood and into the fluid.
  • DIt will move down its concentration gradient from the blood and into the fluid.

Q4:

The diagram provided shows a simplified section of a dialyzer.

Complete the statement with “high” and “low” to correctly describe the difference in urea concentrations: The concentration of urea is in the blood and in the dialysis fluid.

  • Ahigh, high
  • Blow, high
  • Chigh, low
  • Dlow, low

Which of the following best explains why the blood flows in the opposite direction to the dialysis fluid’s?

  • AThe opposite direction of flow maintains a steep concentration gradient so useful products continually diffuse out of the blood.
  • BThe opposite direction of flow maintains a steep concentration gradient so waste products continually diffuse into the blood.
  • CThe opposite direction of flow maintains a steep concentration gradient so waste products continually diffuse out of the blood.
  • DThe opposite direction of flow has no benefit and is just a coincidence.

Q5:

If the kidneys do not function properly, some substances will not be removed from the body. Which waste substance would you expect to build up in the blood of someone with kidney failure?

  • AUrea
  • BCarbon dioxide
  • CGlucose
  • DDead red blood cells
  • EBile

Q6:

The graph provided shows the number of people requiring a kidney transplant compared to the number of transplants carried out.

Which of the following statements about the data correctly describes the trend?

  • AThe number of transplants carried out is significantly higher than the demand for kidneys.
  • BThe demand for kidney transplants is consistently higher than the number of transplants carried out.
  • CThe number of kidney transplants carried out was higher in 1990 than in 2010.
  • DThe demand for kidney transplants has slowly decreased over time.

Q7:

Which of the following correctly compares the cost of the two main methods of treating kidney disease?

  • AIn the long term, keeping a person on dialysis is cheaper.
  • BIn the long term, kidney transplants are cheaper.
  • CThere is no significant difference between the cost of the two treatments.

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