**Q1: **

Clothing may be stained during washing if the water has a ion concentration 0.1 mg/L ( M), but the amount of in the water can be reduced by adding a base. The base lowers the maximum value of [] by precipitating excess manganese ions as the hydroxide, . The solubility product of , , is . Calculate to 1 decimal place the pH required to prevent [] from exceeding M.

- A8.2
- B7.0
- C9.0
- D10.5
- E11.7

**Q2: **

A solution contains 0.0010 mol of and 0.10 mol of per liter. is gradually added to this solution. Which forms first, solid or solid ? is for , and for .

- ASolid and solid precipitate at the same value of
- BSolid
- CMore information is needed.
- DSolid
- EOnly solid precipitates.

**Q3: **

A solution contains and ions at equal concentrations of 0.050 M. Silver(I) nitrate is added to the solution until precipitation takes place. The solubility product is for , and for .

At what value of [] does precipitation begin?

- A M
- B M
- C M
- D M
- E M

To 3 significant figures, what molar percentage of the initial precipitate is ?

- A0.00%
- B0.313%
- C50.0%
- D100%
- E99.7%

**Q4: **

Consider the equilibrium

A suspension contains solid in equilibrium with a saturated solution of and ions. The concentration of ions in the solution is M. What is the solubility product of ?

- A
- B
- C
- D
- E

**Q5: **

Fluorite, , is a slightly soluble solid that dissolves according to the equation: The concentration of in a saturated solution of is M. What is the solubility product of fluorite?

- A
- B
- C
- D
- E

**Q6: **

Blood will not clot if calcium ions are removed from its plasma. Some blood collection tubes contain salts of the oxalate ion, , for this purpose. At sufficiently high concentrations, the calcium and oxalate ions form solid . The concentration of in a sample of blood serum is M. What concentration of ions must be established before begins to precipitate?

- A M
- B M
- C M
- D M
- E M

**Q7: **

The dissolution of silver(I) iodide is represented by the equation If this process changes by an amount , what is the change in ?

- A
- B
- C
- D
- E

**Q8: **

The dissolution of magnesium phosphate is represented by the equation If this process changes by an amount , what is the change in ?

- A
- B
- C
- D
- E

**Q9: **

In an aqueous ammonia solution, molecules react with ions to form ions. The stability constant of is . If the concentration of ions in a solution is initially 0.10 M, what is the concentration of ions at equilibrium?

- A M
- B M
- C M
- D M
- E M

**Q10: **

The iodate ion concentration of a saturated solution of was found to be mol/L. What is the of ?

- A
- B
- C
- D
- E

**Q11: **

The dissolution of calcium carbonate is represented by the equation If this process changes by an amount , what is the change in ?

- A
- B
- C
- D
- E

**Q12: **

The first step in the preparation of magnesium metal is the precipitation of from sea water by the addition of . The concentration of in sea water is M and the solubility product of is . Calculate to 2 decimal places the pH at which the addition of , causes [] to decrease to M.

**Q13: **

The solubility product of at is . If a solution contains 0.0020 mol of per liter, what concentration of ion must be reached by adding solid before begins to precipitate? Neglect any increase in volume upon adding the solid silver nitrate.

- A M
- B M
- C M
- D M
- E M

**Q14: **

The dissolution of magnesium hydroxide is represented by the equation If this process changes by an amount , what is the change in ?

- A
- B
- C
- D
- E

**Q15: **

The dissolution of tribasic calcium phosphate is represented by the equation If this process changes by an amount , what is the change in ?

- A
- B
- C
- D
- E

**Q16: **

The of copper(II) iodate () is . Calculate the concentration of iodate ions in a saturated solution of copper(II) iodate.

- A M
- B M
- C M
- D M
- E M

**Q17: **

A 1.00 L solution is prepared by dissolving 1.00 g of and 10.0 g of in water. and ions react to form ions, with a stability constant of . Calculate the concentration of ions in the solution at equilibrium.

- A M
- B M
- C M
- D M
- E M