Worksheet: Nuclear Radiation in Medicine
In this worksheet, we will practice determining the suitability of a radioisotope for use in different medical applications.
Polonium-210 is a radioactive isotope of polonium with a half-life of 138 days. It decays via alpha decay to lead. Which of the following are reasons why polonium-210 cannot be used as a radioactive tracer?
- Polonium-210 is too expensive to be used as a radioactive tracer.
- Polonium-210 decays too slowly and thus would remain in a person’s system for too long.
- Polonium-210 is a very rare isotope, and thus refining it for use in medicine is too difficult.
- Polonium-210 decays too quickly and thus would not remain in a person’s system long enough to be useful.
- Polonium-210 decays to lead, which is highly toxic.
- Polonium-210 decays via alpha decay. Radioactive tracers have to emit gamma rays. The alpha particles released by polonium would be absorbed by the body’s cells.
- Ac, d, e
- Bc, d, f
- Cb, c, e
- Da, d, f
- Eb, e, f
Which of the following correctly explains why gamma radiation is used for radiation beam therapy rather than alpha or beta particles?
- AGamma-ray sources are cheaper than alpha and beta sources.
- BGamma radiation is more ionizing than alpha or beta radiation and is therefore more effective in destroying cancerous cells.
- CGamma radiation is more easily contained than alpha and beta radiations.
- DGamma radiation can penetrate further into the body than alpha or beta radiation and can thus reach the organs that contain cancerous tissue.
- EGamma-ray sources have longer half-lives than alpha and beta sources and therefore do not have to be replaced as often.
Which of the following is the correct unit for ionizing radiation dose?
- AJoule (J)
- BHertz (Hz)
- CBecquerel (Bq)
- DWatt (W)
- ESievert (Sv)
Polonium-218 is a radioactive isotope with a half-life of 3.1 minutes. It can decay via alpha decay or beta decay. Which of the following correctly explains why polonium-218 is not suitable for use in gamma-ray beam therapy?
- APolonium-218 is very expensive.
- BPolonium-218 does not emit any gamma rays.
- CPolonium-218 decays to lead, which is highly toxic; thus, the radioactive waste is difficult to dispose of.
- DThe half-life of Polonium-218 is too long, and thus a very large sample of it is needed to produce enough gamma rays to be useful.
The table shows four different radioactive isotopes. Which isotopes would be suitable for use in a radioactive implant?
|Half-Life||1.27 minutes||5.27 years||1.02 years||3.82 days|
- ACobalt-60 and rubidium-82
- BCobalt-60 and radon-222
- CRubidium-82 and radon-222
- DRubidium-82 and ruthenium-106
- ECobalt-60 and ruthenium-106
Rubidium-82 is a radioactive isotope of rubidium that decays via beta decay with a half-life of 1.27 minutes. Which of the following correctly explains why rubidium-82 is not suitable for use in radioactive implants?
- ARubidium-82 decays too quickly to be of any use in radioactive implants.
- BRubidium-82 does not exist naturally and producing it would be too expensive.
- CRubidium-82 decays too slowly to be of any use in radioactive implants.
- DRadioactive implants require an isotope that decays via alpha decay, but rubidium-82 decays via beta decay.
The table shows five different radioactive isotopes. Which isotopes would be suitable for use in gamma-ray beam therapy?
|Half-Life||73.8 days||years||30.2 years||years||3.1 minutes|
- AIridium-192 and cesium-137
- BCesium-137 and uranium-238
- CIridium-192 and polonium-218
- DNeodymium-144 and polonium-218
- ENeodymium-144 and uranium-238
The table shows four different radioactive isotopes. Which isotopes would be suitable for use as radioactive tracers?
|Half-Life||15.7 million years||6 hours||30 seconds||13.2 hours|
- AIodine-129 and technetium-99m
- BIodine-129 and rhodium-106
- CTechnetium-99m and iodine-123
- DRhodium-106 and iodine-123
Do the isotopes used for radioactive tracers have shorter half-lives or longer half-lives than those used for gamma ray beam therapy?
- ALonger half-lives
- BShorter half-lives
Do the isotopes used for radioactive implants have shorter half-lives or longer half-lives than those used for radioactive tracers?
- AShorter half-lives
- BLonger half-lives
What type of radiation does a radioactive isotope need to emit to be useful in radioactive implants?
- AGamma radiation
- BNeutron radiation
- CAlpha radiation
- DBeta radiation
What type of radiation does a radioactive isotope need to emit to be useful as a radioactive tracer?
- AGamma radiation only
- BGamma and beta radiation
- CAlpha radiation only
- DNeutron radiation only
- EBeta radiation only