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Worksheet: Solvation

Q1:

Why are N a + and C l ions strongly solvated in water but not in hexane?

  • AWater molecules are bent, so ions can occupy the space between O H bonds. Hexane molecules are straight so cannot interact with ions in this way.
  • BHexane molecules are much larger than water molecules, so they cannot pack around the small sodium and chloride ions as easily as water can.
  • CDissolution of ions in hexane is entropically costly, as interactions with ions force the hexane molecules into less flexible folded conformations.
  • DIon-dipole forces between the ions and water are stronger in total than the ionic bonds of sodium chloride. Hexane is non-polar so interacts with ions far more weakly.
  • EChloride ions deprotonate water molecules, and the resulting ion-ion interactions are stronger in total than the ionic bonds of sodium chloride. Hexane cannot be deprotonated so interacts with ions far more weakly.

Q2:

Fill in the blanks. Typically, as the temperature of the solvent increases, solids become soluble, and gases become soluble.

  • ALess, less
  • BMore, more
  • CLess, more
  • DMore, less