Worksheet: The Lungs

In this worksheet, we will practice describing the structure of the lungs, and explaining how they are adapted for efficient gas exchange.

Q1:

What gas is taken in by the lungs and transported around the body in red blood cells?

  • ACarbon oxide
  • BSulfur dioxide
  • COxygen
  • DNitrogen

Q2:

What gas is transported out of the bloodstream and into the lungs to be exhaled?

  • ASulfur dioxide
  • BCarbon monoxide
  • CCarbon dioxide
  • DNitrogen

Q3:

What is the primary purpose of the lungs in the gas exchange system?

  • ATo pump oxygenated blood around the body
  • BTo break down excess glucose for energy
  • CTo bind to oxygen from the atmosphere
  • DTo exhale oxygen
  • ETo inhale and exhale air

Q4:

Which of the following correctly outlines the movement of oxygen from the atmosphere into the body?

  • AAtmosphere trachea alveoli capillaries bloodstream bronchi bronchioles
  • BAtmosphere trachea bronchi bronchioles alveoli capillaries bloodstream
  • CAtmosphere alveoli trachea bronchi bronchioles capillaries bloodstream
  • DAtmosphere trachea bronchi bronchioles bloodstream alveoli capillaries
  • EAtmosphere bronchi bronchioles trachea alveoli capillaries bloodstream

Q5:

An alveolus has a large surface area relative to its volume. Which of the following best describes the advantage of this?

  • AA large surface area allows the temperature to be regulated more easily.
  • BA large surface area allows more diffusion to occur.
  • CA large surface area prevents the entry of microbes or pathogens.
  • DA large surface area provides more space for the enzyme-controlled reactions to take place.

Q6:

The walls of the alveoli and the capillaries are very thin. Why is this an advantage?

  • AIt provides a small surface area for reactions to occur.
  • BIt provides a short diffusion pathway for gas exchange.
  • CIt allows alveoli to expand and contract easily.
  • DIt prevents blood from clotting in the capillaries.
  • EIt prevents microbes from entering the alveoli.

Q7:

What protein does oxygen bind to in red blood cells?

  • AGlobulin
  • BHemoglobin
  • CInsulin
  • DHistone
  • EIronin

Q8:

What is the result of the decrease in air pressure in the lungs?

  • AAir is pulled in.
  • BThe volume of the lungs decreases.
  • CAir is forced out.
  • DThere is no overall movement of air.

Q9:

The diagram provided shows a basic outline of the human lungs, with parts magnified.

Which number points to the trachea?

Which number points to the alveoli?

Q10:

The table shows the typical composition of inhaled and exhaled air.

GasPercentage of Air Breathed InPercentage of Air Breathed Out
Nitrogen78%78%
Oxygen15%
Carbon dioxide0.04%
Other (including noble gases and water vapor)1%3%

Calculate the percentage of oxygen that is typically breathed in.

Calculate the percentage of carbon dioxide that is typically breathed out.

Q11:

The diagram provided shows the basic outline of the lungs when a person is exhaling (breathing out).

Complete the sentence using “upward” or “downward”: As a person exhales, the diaphragm moves .

  • Aupward
  • Bdownward

Complete the sentence using “inward” or “outward”: As a person exhales, the ribs move .

  • Ainward
  • Boutward

Complete the sentence: As a person exhales, the volume of the chest cavity and the air pressure in the lungs .

  • Aincreases, decreases
  • Bdecreases, increases
  • Cincreases, increases
  • Ddecreases, decreases

Q12:

The diagram provided shows the basic outline of the lungs when a person is inhaling (breathing in).

Complete the sentence using “upward” or “downward”: As a person inhales, the diaphragm moves .

  • Aupward
  • Bdownward

Complete the sentence using “inward” or “outward”: As a person inhales, the ribs move .

  • Ainward
  • Boutward

Complete the sentence: As a person inhales, the volume of the chest cavity and the air pressure .

  • Aincreases, decreases
  • Bincreases, increases
  • Cdecreases, decreases
  • Ddecreases, increases

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