This lesson includes 22 additional questions and 4 additional question variations for subscribers.
Lesson Worksheet: X-ray Tubes Physics
In this worksheet, we will practice describing the production of X-rays using an X-ray tube and how the spectrum of X-rays produced can vary.
The graph shows the relative intensity of X-rays in an X-ray spectrum of different X-ray photon energies. Which of the following mechanisms could result in the production of an X-ray spectrum with this shape due to an electron beam striking a target?
- AExcitement of electrons in high-energy states in target atoms
- BEjection of electrons in low-energy states in target atoms
- CEjection of electrons in high-energy states in target atoms
- DAcceleration of free electrons
- EDeceleration of free electrons
The diagram shows an atom in the target material used in a Coolidge tube that generates X-rays. An electron in the electron beam used in the tube could eject either an electron in the K-shell or an electron in the L-shell of the atom. Which of the following would result in the greatest energy X-ray photon being emitted from the atom?
- AThe energy of the X-ray photon emitted from the atom will depend on the initial energy of the electron in the beam as well as which electron in the atom is ejected.
- BAn electron in the K-shell of the atom is ejected.
- CAn electron in the L-shell of the atom is ejected.
- DThe energy of the X-ray photon emitted from the atom will be the same whichever electron is ejected.
The diagram shows an atom in the target material of a Coolidge tube that generates X-rays. An electron in the electron beam used in the tube ejects an electron from the K-shell of the atom and is scattered. Which of the electrons shown produces an X-ray photon that appears in an X-ray spectrum as part of a characteristic line of the spectrum?
- AThe scattered electron
- BThe electron in the L-shell
- CThe ejected electron
- DThe high-energy-level electron
- EAll of the electrons
The sharpness of an image that can be resolved by an X-ray beam emitted from a Coolidge tube is affected by the width of the spot that the electron beam in the tube is incident on. Which of the following provides the most practical limit to the minimum width of the spot that can be used?
- AMost of the energy of electrons in a beam striking a target is converted to internal energy of the target, so too great a rate of electrons striking the spot increases the temperature of the target excessively.
- BElectrons emitted thermionically cannot be resolved onto a spot with less than a certain width.
- CElectron impacts deform the target where they strike it, increasing the width of the targeted spot.
- DElectrons in the beam diffract and so cannot be resolved onto a spot with less than a certain width.
- EElectrons in the beam induce a net negative charge on the target, deflecting the beam and increasing the width of the targeted spot.