Worksheet: X-ray Tubes

In this worksheet, we will practice describing the production of X-rays using an X-ray tube and how the spectrum of X-rays produced can vary.

Q1:

The graph shows the relative intensity of X-rays in an X-ray spectrum of different X-ray photon energies. Which of the following mechanisms could result in the production of an X-ray spectrum with this shape due to an electron beam striking a target?

  • AExcitement of electrons in high-energy states in target atoms
  • BEjection of electrons in low-energy states in target atoms
  • CEjection of electrons in high-energy states in target atoms
  • DAcceleration of free electrons
  • EDeceleration of free electrons

Q2:

The diagram shows a Coolidge tube used for the production of X-rays. The potential difference 𝑉=60kV and the potential difference 𝑉=12V. What is the maximum energy of X-rays that the tube can produce?

Q3:

The diagram shows an atom in the target material used in a Coolidge tube that generates X-rays. An electron in the electron beam used in the tube could eject either an electron in the K-shell or an electron in the L-shell of the atom. Which of the following would result in the greatest energy X-ray photon being emitted from the atom?

  • AThe energy of the X-ray photon emitted from the atom will depend on the initial energy of the electron in the beam as well as which electron in the atom is ejected.
  • BAn electron in the K-shell of the atom is ejected.
  • CAn electron in the L-shell of the atom is ejected.
  • DThe energy of the X-ray photon emitted from the atom will be the same whichever electron is ejected.

Q4:

The diagram shows a Coolidge tube used for the production of X-rays. Which of the potential differences 𝑉 and 𝑉 would have the greater voltage?

  • A𝑉
  • BEither potential difference could have the greater voltage.
  • C𝑉
  • DBoth potential differences have the same voltage.

Q5:

The diagram shows a Coolidge tube used for the production of X-rays. Which of the following is emitted from the component labeled II?

  • AElectrons
  • BX-rays
  • CIons
  • DPositrons
  • ENothing

Q6:

The diagram shows a Coolidge tube used for the production of X-rays. Which of the following is emitted from the component labeled I?

  • APositrons
  • BNothing
  • CElectrons
  • DIons
  • EX-rays

Q7:

The diagram shows an atom in the target material of a Coolidge tube that generates X-rays. An electron in the electron beam used in the tube ejects an electron from the K-shell of the atom and is scattered. Which of the electrons shown produces an X-ray photon that appears in an X-ray spectrum as part of a characteristic line of the spectrum?

  • AThe scattered electron
  • BThe electron in the L-shell
  • CThe ejected electron
  • DThe high-energy-level electron
  • EAll of the electrons

Q8:

The diagram shows a Coolidge tube used for the production of X-rays. Which of the following physical processes causes X-rays to be emitted from the component labeled II?

  • AThe thermionic effect
  • BX-ray diffraction
  • CDecrease in electron energy
  • DThe photoelectric effect
  • EElectron diffraction

Q9:

The diagram shows a Coolidge tube used for the production of X-rays. Which of the following physical processes causes electrons to be emitted from the component labeled I?

  • AThe photoelectric effect
  • BElectron diffraction
  • CThe thermionic effect
  • DBremsstrahlung radiation
  • EX-ray diffraction

Q10:

The solid line on the graph shows the relative intensity of X-rays in an X-ray spectrum of different X-ray photon energies produced by an electron beam striking a target. The dotted line on the graph shows the bremsstrahlung radiation that would be produced by an electron beam striking the same target but with a smaller beam current. Which of the following correctly shows the characteristic lines that would be observed when the smaller beam current was used?

  • A
  • B
  • C
  • D
  • E

Q11:

Which of the following must change if the beam current in the electron beam of a Coolidge tube is changed?

  • AThe speed of the X-ray photons that are produced
  • BThe average energy of the X-ray photons that are produced
  • CThe presence of characteristic lines in the X-ray spectrum produced
  • DThe maximum energy of the X-ray photons that are produced
  • EThe rate at which X-ray photons are produced

Q12:

The sharpness of an image that can be resolved by an X-ray beam emitted from a Coolidge tube is affected by the width of the spot that the electron beam in the tube is incident on. Which of the following provides the most practical limit to the minimum width of the spot that can be used?

  • AMost of the energy of electrons in a beam striking a target is converted to internal energy of the target, so too great a rate of electrons striking the spot increases the temperature of the target excessively.
  • BElectrons emitted thermionically cannot be resolved onto a spot with less than a certain width.
  • CElectron impacts deform the target where they strike it, increasing the width of the targeted spot.
  • DElectrons in the beam diffract and so cannot be resolved onto a spot with less than a certain width.
  • EElectrons in the beam induce a net negative charge on the target, deflecting the beam and increasing the width of the targeted spot.

Q13:

The graph shows the relative intensity of X-rays in an X-ray spectrum of different X-ray photon energies produced by an electron beam striking a target. Which of the sets of thin lines shown in the spectrum are due to electrons losing the greater amount of energy?

  • AII
  • BI
  • CAll the lines are produced by electrons losing the same amount of energy.

Q14:

The solid line on the graph shows the relative intensity of X-rays in an X-ray spectrum of different X-ray photon energies produced by an electron beam striking a target. The dotted line on the graph shows the bremsstrahlung radiation that would be produced by an electron beam striking the same target but accelerated across a smaller potential difference. Which of the following correctly shows the characteristic lines that would be observed when the smaller-voltage electron beam was used?

  • A
  • B
  • C
  • D
  • E

Q15:

The graph shows the relative intensity of X-rays in an X-ray spectrum of different X-ray photon energies. Which of the following mechanisms could result in the appearance of thin lines in the X-ray spectrum produced due to an electron beam striking a target?

  • AElectrons in high-energy states in target atoms being excited
  • BDeceleration of free electrons
  • CElectrons in high-energy states in target atoms being ejected
  • DAcceleration of free electrons
  • EElectrons in low-energy states in target atoms being ejected

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