Worksheet: The Digestive System

In this worksheet, we will practice describing the major components of the digestive system and their adaptations.

Q1:

The diagram provided shows a basic outline of the human digestive system.

Which organ is represented by the letter A?

  • APancreas
  • BLarge intestine
  • CStomach
  • DSmall intestine

Which organ is represented by the letter B?

  • ALarge intestine
  • BPancreas
  • CStomach
  • DLiver

Which organ is represented by the letter C?

  • ALiver
  • BLarge intestine
  • CSmall intestine
  • DStomach

Which organ is represented by the letter D?

  • ALarge intestine
  • BPancreas
  • CSmall intestine
  • DLiver

Q2:

What is the main function of the digestive system?

  • ACollecting and processing information from external and internal stimuli
  • BSynthesizing large molecules from smaller ones
  • CRegulating cellular metabolism and respiration
  • DBreaking down large, insoluble molecules into smaller, soluble ones
  • EMaintaining a constant internal environment

Q3:

In what organ of the digestive system are the majority of nutrients absorbed from food and into the bloodstream?

  • ALarge intestine
  • BPancreas
  • CLiver
  • DStomach
  • ESmall intestine

Q4:

Which of the following is not an adaptation of the stomach for digestion?

  • AThe stomach has a low pH which is optimum for protease enzymes.
  • BThe stomach produces hydrochloric acid.
  • CThe stomach has a mucus lining as a protective layer.
  • DThe body of the stomach is composed of muscle.
  • EThe stomach produces and stores bile.

Q5:

In what organ of the digestive system is water removed from indigestible food before it is egested from the body?

  • ALarge intestine
  • BStomach
  • CSmall intestine
  • DPancreas
  • ELiver

Q6:

Which of the following organs is not a component of the digestive system?

  • ALungs
  • BLiver
  • CLarge intestine
  • DPancreas
  • EStomach

Q7:

One of the nutrients absorbed into the bloodstream in the small intestine is glucose. What cellular process is glucose a reactant in?

  • AMitosis
  • BRespiration
  • CDigestion
  • DReplication
  • EProtein synthesis

Q8:

The pH of the digestive tract changes between organs.

For the following organs, state whether the pH is highly acidic, mildly acidic, mildly alkaline, or highly alkaline.

Approximately, what is the pH of the stomach?

  • AHighly alkaline
  • BMildly alkaline
  • CMildly acidic
  • DHighly acidic

Approximately, what is the pH of the small intestine?

  • AMildly alkaline
  • BHighly alkaline
  • CHighly acidic
  • DMildly acidic

Q9:

Which of the following best describes the organization of the digestive system?

  • AA group of different organs that work together to perform a particular function
  • BA group of unrelated organs that are organized in a vertical manner
  • CA group of different organs that are comprised of the same cells
  • DA group of identical organs that carry out similar functions for the same overall purpose

Q10:

Which of the following sequences is in the correct order of the passage of food through the digestive system?

  • AMouth esophagus stomach large intestine small intestine rectum
  • BMouth esophagus stomach small intestine large intestine rectum
  • CMouth stomach large intestine small intestine esophagus rectum
  • DEsophagus mouth stomach large intestine small intestine rectum
  • EMouth esophagus large intestine small intestine stomach rectum

Q11:

The diagram shows the basic structure of the liver and how it is connected to other organs.

What alkaline liquid does the liver produce to aid digestion?

  • AWater
  • BAmylase
  • CPepsin
  • DBile
  • EHydrochloric acid

In what organ is this liquid stored until it is needed?

  • APancreas
  • BStomach
  • CGallbladder
  • DSmall intestine
  • ELarge intestine

Q12:

The diagram shows the basic outline of the human digestive system.

Which number indicates the large intestine?

Which number indicates the liver?

Which number indicates the stomach?

Q13:

The pancreas is a leaflike structure that resides underneath the stomach.

What biological molecule(s) does the pancreas produce to help break down food?

  • AFatty acids
  • BCarbohydrates
  • CBile
  • DEnzymes
  • ENucleic acids

Q14:

What is the role of the stomach in digestion?

  • ATo physically and chemically break down food
  • BTo mechanically churn the food before it enters the esophagus
  • CTo absorb nutrients from digested food
  • DTo absorb water from digested food
  • ETo release protease, amylase, and lipase to break down food

Q15:

The small intestine is lined with tiny fingerlike projections called villi, shown in the diagram. How do villi aid the small intestine in carrying out its primary functions in digestion?

  • AVilli increase the surface area of the small intestine, so more nutrients can be absorbed.
  • BVilli contain more mitochondria, so more nutrients can be actively transported into the large intestine.
  • CVilli make the walls of the small intestine smoother, so food passes through more quickly.
  • DVilli increase the volume of the small intestine, so more food can be digested at the same time.
  • EVilli produce hydrochloric acid, which helps the small intestine destroy pathogens.

Q16:

Which of the following correctly describes the composition of the gastric juice found in the stomach?

  • AMostly water, with some hydrochloric acid and pepsin enzymes
  • BA mix of enzymes, with sodium bicarbonate to help neutralize the stomach acid
  • CMostly water, with some sodium bicarbonate and many different electrolytes
  • DMostly sodium bicarbonate, with some hydrochloric acid and trypsin enzymes
  • EMostly hydrochloric acid, with some water and a range of enzymes

Q17:

What happens to food that cannot be digested by the digestive system?

  • AIt is detoxified in the liver.
  • BIt is sweated out through the skin.
  • CIt is reabsorbed into the bloodstream in the small intestine.
  • DIt is filtered and then selectively reabsorbed in the kidneys.
  • EIt is excreted as feces.

Q18:

Which of the following best describes the composition of the pancreatic juice?

  • AMostly sodium bicarbonate, with some hydrochloric acid and trypsin enzymes
  • BA mix of protease, carbohydrase, and bile to emulsify fats
  • CMostly water, with some hydrochloric acid and pepsin enzymes
  • DMostly amylase, with some water and some essential amino acids
  • EA mix of enzymes, with sodium bicarbonate to help neutralize the stomach acid

Q19:

Peristalsis is a wave of smooth muscle contractions that occurs in many parts of the digestive system. What is its function in the esophagus?

  • AIt pushes food from the stomach back into the mouth.
  • BIt pushes food from the mouth to the stomach.
  • CIt triggers coughing to remove any food particles that enter the airway.
  • DIt pulls food out of the stomach and into the small intestine.

Q20:

The diagram provided shows the structure of the villi that line the small intestine. Their primary function is to absorb useful products of digestion. Where will these products be transported?

  • ATo the skin to be excreted as sweat
  • BThrough the bloodstream and lymphatic system
  • CTo the kidneys to be excreted as urine
  • DTo the lungs to be breathed out

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