Worksheet: DNA

In this worksheet, we will practice describing the structure of DNA, and explaining how DNA can be extracted from organic material.

Q1:

A section of DNA contains the order of bases ATGCTTAA. What would the complementary sequence of bases be?

  • AATCCAATT
  • BTACCAATT
  • CTACGAATT
  • DTACGGATT
  • ETTCGAATT

Q2:

What term is given to the shape that DNA forms?

  • ATriple helix
  • BDouble helix
  • CSpiral helix
  • DDouble helicase
  • ESingle helix

Q3:

What term is given to a short section of DNA that may code for a specific protein?

  • AGenome
  • BChromosome
  • CNucleotide
  • DBase pair
  • EGene

Q4:

Which of the following is not an example of a base found in eukaryotic DNA?

  • AG
  • BC
  • CA
  • DT
  • EU

Q5:

The two strands of DNA are held together by complementary base pairs.

In DNA, which other base does C bond to?

  • AA
  • BT
  • CG
  • DU
  • EC

In DNA, which other base does T bond to?

  • AG
  • BA
  • CC
  • DT
  • EU

Q6:

How are the two strands of DNA held together in a double helix shape?

  • ABy electrostatic attraction
  • BBy strong carbon bonds
  • CBy weak carbon bonds
  • DBy strong hydrogen bonds
  • EBy weak hydrogen bonds

Q7:

Which of the following best describes the structure of a nucleotide?

  • AA nucleotide is a small unit made up of a glucose sugar, a phosphate group, and a base pair.
  • BA nucleotide is a large subunit made up of a phosphate-sugar group.
  • CA nucleotide is a small unit made up of the four base pairs joined together by hydrogen bonds.
  • DA nucleotide is a small unit that joins with other nucleotides to form a long chain.
  • EA nucleotide is a small unit made up of a deoxyribose sugar, a phosphate group, and a base (either A, T, G, or C).

Q8:

What term is given to all of the DNA in an organism?

  • AGenome
  • BGenomics
  • CGenes
  • DChromosome
  • EPhenotype

Q9:

The four bases in DNA are often called A, T, G, and C.

What does A stand for?

  • AAdenil
  • BAdenine
  • CAdenose
  • DAdenocyte

What does T stand for?

  • AThymine
  • BThytomine
  • CThyroide
  • DThyroxine

What does C stand for?

  • ACytosine
  • BCytoplasm
  • CCymine
  • DCytocrine

What does G stand for?

  • AGuanine
  • BGuamine
  • CGuanone
  • DGuatamine

Q10:

Which of the following statements best explains why DNA can be described as a polymer?

  • ADNA is formed of many similar units (nucleotides) that are joined in a chain.
  • BDNA is formed of many different units (nucleotides) that are joined in a chain.
  • CDNA is formed of a few repeating units.
  • DDNA is formed of many unconnected units.
  • EDNA forms a double helix shape.

Q11:

The given diagram shows a section of DNA.

What structure is represented by label 1?

  • ASugar-phosphate backbone
  • BDouble helix
  • CA base
  • DNucleotides
  • EHydrogen bonds

What structure is represented by label 2?

  • ASugar-phosphate backbone
  • BDouble helix
  • CHydrogen bonds
  • DNucleotides
  • EA base

What structure is represented by label 3?

  • AHydrogen bonds
  • BNucleotides
  • CSugar-phosphate backbone
  • DA base
  • EDouble helix

Q12:

DNA can be extracted from organic material such as fruits and vegetables.

The method of extracting DNA from peas is outlined below:

  1. Mash up 50 g of peas and add to a beaker with an extraction buffer.
  2. Place the beaker in a 60C water bath.
  3. Filter the mixture into a boiling tube.
  4. Add two drops of protease solution to the mixture.
  5. Use a pipette to slowly add ice-cold ethanol to the solution.
  6. Leave the tube for a few minutes so a white precipitate forms.
  7. Collect the DNA.

What is the purpose of the extraction buffer?

  • AMaking DNA form a precipitate
  • BKeeping the DNA in one piece
  • CBreaking down the cell
  • DColoring the cell and making it clearer to see
  • EBreaking down the nuclear membrane and extracting the DNA

Why should we use a water bath rather than heat the solution with a Bunsen burner?

  • ABecause it is cheaper
  • BBecause a water bath can reach higher temperatures than a Bunsen burner
  • CWe should not use a water bath to heat the solution; this is a mistake.
  • DBecause it is easier to control the temperature that way
  • EBecause it is quicker

What is the purpose of the ethanol?

  • ADNA is insoluble in ethanol and will form a precipitate.
  • BDNA reacts with ethanol to give a clear solution.
  • CEthanol is a catalyst used to speed up the reaction.
  • DDNA is soluble in ethanol and will form a precipitate.
  • EEthanol is easier to use than water.

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