Lesson Worksheet: The Human Genome Biology

In this worksheet, we will practice describing the components of the human genome and outlining why scientists want to study the human genome.

Q1:

Which of the following best describes an allele?

  • ADifferent forms of the same gene
  • BAll the DNA within an organism
  • CA section of DNA that codes for a protein
  • DThe interaction of DNA with the environment
  • ESimilar forms of different genes

Q2:

Roughly, what percentage of DNA bases are the same across all humans?

  • A50%
  • B0%
  • C<25%
  • D>99%
  • E75%

Q3:

Which of the following best describes a gene?

  • AAll of the DNA and RNA within an organism
  • BThe combination of different alleles that make up an organism
  • CA section of DNA or RNA that codes for a particular protein or molecule
  • DA section of DNA or RNA that codes for a specific carbohydrate
  • EThe physical appearance of an organism

Q4:

Which of the following parts of the genome can affect how well medicines work in different people?

  • AMitochondrial DNA
  • BHydrogen bonds
  • CSugar–phosphate backbone
  • DAlleles

Q5:

A section of mRNA has the following codon sequence: 53AUGGUGCAUCUG.

Use the table provided to determine the correct sequence of amino acids this sequence of codons will be translated into, reading from the 5 to 3 direction.

CodonGAGAUGCAUACUGUGCUG
Amino AcidGluMetHisThrValLeu
  • AMet, Val, His, Val
  • BMet, His, Thr, Leu
  • CMet, Val, His, Leu
  • DGlu, Met, His, Thr
  • EGlu, Val, His, Leu

Q6:

What is a genome?

  • AThe lifestyle factors that influence an organism
  • BAll of the DNA within an organism
  • CThe physical appearance of an organism
  • DAll of the noncoding DNA in an organism
  • EAll of the coding DNA in an organism

Q7:

What are the four nitrogenous bases of DNA?

  • AA U G C
  • BA T G D
  • CA B G C
  • DT G C E
  • EA T G C

Q8:

What was the main purpose of the Human Genome Project?

  • ACreating a comprehensive genetic map of the human genome
  • BAnalysing the evolution of traits and inherited disorders over time
  • CIdentifying genetic diseases and understanding their mechanisms of action
  • DAll of the answers are correct.

Q9:

The genome is .

  • Athe complete set of DNA and protein which make up the entire chromosomal structure of an individual
  • Bthe complete set of DNA which makes up the entire genetic information of an individual
  • Cthe complete set of DNA and RNA which make up the entire nucleic acid content of an individual
  • Dthe complete set of protein which makes up the entire translated nucleic acid content of an individual

Q10:

What was the purpose of the Human Genome Project?

  • AIdentifying all proteins which are coded by genes in humans
  • BIdentifying all genes and their sequence in humans
  • CIdentifying the structure of all chromosomes in human cells
  • DIdentifying all possible phenotypes of genes in humans

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