Lesson Worksheet: Kidney Structure Biology

In this worksheet, we will practice describing the macroscopic and microscopic structures of the kidney.

Q1:

What is the function of the renal vein?

  • ACarrying blood from the heart to the kidney
  • BCarrying urea from the bladder to the kidney
  • CCarrying blood from the kidney to the heart
  • DCarrying urea from the kidney to the bladder

Q2:

What is the function of the renal artery?

  • ACarrying blood from the heart to the kidney
  • BCarrying urea from the kidney to the bladder
  • CCarrying urea from the bladder to the kidney
  • DCarrying blood from the kidney to the heart

Q3:

Which of the following is not a major function of a nephron?

  • ACarrying the carbon dioxide released from cells during respiration to the lungs to be excreted.
  • BFiltering waste products from the blood and excreting them as urine.
  • CSelectively reabsorbing useful substances, like glucose, back into the body.
  • DRegulating salt and water concentrations in the body.

Q4:

The diagram provided shows the macroscopic outline of a human kidney.

What is the structure in the kidney represented by label 1?

  • AUrethra
  • BRenal artery
  • CCortex
  • DMedulla

What is the structure in the kidney represented by label 2?

  • AUrethra
  • BMedulla
  • CCortex
  • DRenal artery

What is the structure in the kidney represented by label 3?

  • ARenal artery
  • BCortex
  • CUrethra
  • DMedulla

Q5:

What organ in the human body does the ureter connect the kidney to?

  • ABladder
  • BSmall intestine
  • CLarge intestine
  • DHeart
  • ELiver

Q6:

The kidneys filter out waste products from the blood. In what substance are these waste products excreted from the body?

  • AMucus
  • BUrine
  • CSweat
  • DFeces
  • ECarbon dioxide

Q7:

The kidney contains thousands of small tubules that filter blood to form urine. What is the scientific term given to these tubules?

  • ACapillaries
  • BUreters
  • CDucts
  • DNephrons

Q8:

The diagram provided shows a simplified outline of the first part of the nephron.

As blood moves through the glomerulus, small molecules pass through into the nephron, and large molecules (like proteins) remain in the blood. What is this process called?

  • ASelective reabsorption
  • BDistillation
  • CFiltration
  • DFermentation

As the filtrate passes through the proximal convoluted tubule, useful substances (like glucose) are taken back into the blood. What is this process called?

  • AFiltration
  • BDistillation
  • CSelective reabsorption
  • DInfiltration

Q9:

The diagram provided shows the basic outline of a single nephron.

What is the structure represented by label 1?

  • ARenal artery
  • BBowman’s capsule
  • CLoop of Henle
  • DRenal vein
  • EGlomerulus

What is the structure represented by label 2?

  • ALoop of Henle
  • BGlomerulus
  • CRenal vein
  • DBowman’s capsule
  • ERenal artery

This lesson includes 26 additional questions for subscribers.

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