Worksheet: Vaccinations

In this worksheet, we will practice explaining the mechanism of vaccinations, and describing the concept of herd immunity.

Q1:

What molecules on the surface of a pathogen in a vaccine stimulate an immune response?

  • AAntigens
  • BAntibodies
  • CAntipathogens
  • DAntitoxins
  • ELymphocytes

Q2:

Which of the following statements best describes herd immunity?

  • AHerd immunity is the prevention of large outbreaks of a disease by having the majority of the population vaccinated.
  • BHerd immunity is the prevention of large outbreaks of a disease by having the majority of animals, such as cattle and sheep, vaccinated.
  • CHerd immunity is the prevention of large outbreaks of a disease by the majority of a population having a natural resistance to it.
  • DHerd immunity is the prevention of large outbreaks of a disease by having 100% of the population vaccinated.
  • EHerd immunity is the prevention of small outbreaks of a disease by having the minority of the population vaccinated.

Q3:

Fill in the blanks: Cells in the immune system that remember antigens and provide a quicker immune response when the body is infected a second time are called .

  • Arecall lymphocytes
  • Bremembering lymphocytes
  • Crecall erythrocytes
  • Dmemory lymphocytes
  • Ememory erythrocytes

Q4:

Diphtheria is a waterborne disease that can be vaccinated against. In 1989, there were 839 cases of diphtheria in the USSR. In 1994, there were 50,000 reported cases. What is the percentage increase? Give your answer to 4 significant figures.

Q5:

What molecules are released by white blood cells in response to a specific pathogen?

  • AAntiseptics
  • BAntivirals
  • CAntigens
  • DAntibiotics
  • EAntibodies

Q6:

Measles is a highly infectious disease that can be fatal. In 2017, 42 people died from measles in Europe. In 2018, this number rose to 72. What is the percentage increase? Give your answer to two significant figures.

Q7:

What cells in the body recognize and respond to the pathogens in a vaccine?

  • AAntigens
  • BAntibiotics
  • CLymphocytes
  • DErythrocytes
  • ERed blood cells

Q8:

The graph provided shows the proportion of measles infections prevented relative to the percentage of children in a population that have been immunized against measles.

Which of the following best describes the trend shown by the graph?

  • AThe higher the percentage of children immunized, the lower the number of infections prevented.
  • BThe higher the percentage of children immunized, the higher the number of infections prevented.
  • CThe lower the percentage of children immunized, the higher the number of infections prevented.
  • DThere is no correlation between the percentage of children immunized and the number of infections prevented.

How do the results shown support the idea of herd immunity?

  • AIf the minority of the population is immunized, the risk of infection is lower.
  • BIf the majority of the population is immunized, the risk of infection is higher.
  • CThere is no link between the results and the idea of herd immunity.
  • DIf the majority of the population is immunized, the risk of infection is lower.

Q9:

The graph provided shows the concentration of antibodies in the blood of a person who has been given a vaccination for a disease that later infects them.

Which of the following best describes the difference in concentration of antibodies between vaccination and infection with the same pathogen?

  • AThe concentration of antibodies does not change between the vaccination and infection.
  • BThe concentration of antibodies is greater after the vaccination is given.
  • CThe concentration of antibodies is greater after infection with the pathogen.

Which of the following best describes the difference in the production of antibodies between vaccination and infection with the same pathogen?

  • AAntibodies are produced at the same rate after the vaccination and infection.
  • BThe production of antibodies is quicker after infection with the pathogen.
  • CThe production of antibodies is quicker after the vaccination.

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