Worksheet: Specialized Cells
In this worksheet, we will practice recalling different specialized cells, describing their adaptations, and relating these adaptations to their functions.
Which of the following is not an adaptation of nerve cells?
- ANerve cell endings contain neurotransmitters that can diffuse across synapses and pass the impulse to another nerve cell.
- BLong axons can carry electrical impulses over large distances.
- CNerve cells contain lots of ribosomes to synthesize large amounts of proteins.
- DNerve cells have many dendrites that can transfer information to other nerve cells.
- EAxons are surrounded by a myelin sheath that acts as an electrical insulator to speed up the rate of conduction.
Which of the following is not an adaptation of sperm cells?
- AThe head’s containing an acrosome which has enzymes that break down the coating of the egg
- BHaving a large nucleus containing the genetic material that needs to be passed on
- CHaving many mitochondria to provide energy via respiration
- DHaving a long tail to help them move through the female reproductive system
- EContaining special proteins that allow contraction of muscles
Which of the following is not an adaptation of egg cells?
- AThey have a protective jelly coat that hardens after fertilization.
- BThe cytoplasm contains a large volume of nutrients to help the embryo grow.
- CThe egg cell membrane can fuse with the sperm cell membrane.
- DThey are lined with cilia that helps move substances away.
- EThey are haploid and thus contain one copy of each chromosome.
The diagram given shows a sperm cell.
What structure is represented by label 1?
What structure is represented by label 2?
What structure is represented by label 3?
Root hair cells are examples of specialized cells found in a plant. Which of the following statements is not a specialization of root hair cells?
- AThey contain a large amount of chlorophyll so photosynthesis can occur at a faster rate.
- BThey contain many mitochondria to provide energy for active transport of mineral ions.
- CThey have a large surface area to take in water from the soil.
- DThey connect to the xylem to transport water and minerals around the plant.
Muscle cells have many adaptations to help them function.
Which parts of the muscle cells slide over each other to contract the fibers?
- BProtein fibers
Which part of the muscle cell allows respiration to take place?
- EProtein fibers
In the muscle cell, glucose is stored when it is not needed for respiration. Which compound is glucose stored as?
State whether the following statements about specialized cells are true or false.
Sperm cells contain many mitochondria to provide the energy they require for movement.
Ciliated epithelial cells have hair-like projections called cilia to decrease the cell surface area.
Which of the following best explains why sperm cells contain many mitochondria?
- ASperm cells contain many mitochondria to allow the sperm to produce large amounts of glucose.
- BSperm cells contain many mitochondria to transfer genetic material during fertilization.
- CSperm cells contain many mitochondria to break down the coating of the egg cell when they combine.
- DSperm cells contain many mitochondria to provide them with energy needed for movement.
Which of the following is correct about the genetic material contained in sperm and egg cells?
- ASperm cells contain half the amount of DNA that egg cells do.
- BEgg cells contain half the amount of DNA that sperm cells do.
- CSperm and egg cells are haploid, so they contain half the genetic material of a normal body cell.
- DSperm and egg cells contain double the normal number of chromosomes of a normal body cell.
Which specialized cells are described as cells that carry electrical impulses to allow rapid responses in the body?
- AEpithelial cells
- BSperm cells
- CEndocrine cells
- DNerve cells
The diagram shows a basic outline of ciliated epithelial cells. Which of the following best explains how a ciliated epithelial cell is adapted for its function?
- ACiliated epithelial cells have small flagella that act to propel the cells through the body.
- BCiliated epithelial cells have tiny folds in the membrane to increase the amount of substances that can be absorbed.
- CCiliated epithelial cells have finger-like projections that can produce wave-like motion that moves substances along.
- DCiliated epithelial cells contain a large, central mitochondrion to increase the amount of cellular respiration.