Worksheet: Specialized Cells

In this worksheet, we will practice recalling different specialized cells, describing their adaptations, and relating these adaptations to their functions.

Q1:

Which of the following is not an adaptation of nerve cells?

  • ANerve cell endings contain neurotransmitters that can diffuse across synapses and pass the impulse to another nerve cell.
  • BLong axons can carry electrical impulses over large distances.
  • CNerve cells contain lots of ribosomes to synthesize large amounts of proteins.
  • DNerve cells have many dendrites that can transfer information to other nerve cells.
  • EAxons are surrounded by a myelin sheath that acts as an electrical insulator to speed up the rate of conduction.

Q2:

Which of the following is not an adaptation of sperm cells?

  • AThe head’s containing an acrosome which has enzymes that break down the coating of the egg
  • BHaving a large nucleus containing the genetic material that needs to be passed on
  • CHaving many mitochondria to provide energy via respiration
  • DHaving a long tail to help them move through the female reproductive system
  • EContaining special proteins that allow contraction of muscles

Q3:

Which of the following is not an adaptation of egg cells?

  • AThey have a protective jelly coat that hardens after fertilization.
  • BThe cytoplasm contains a large volume of nutrients to help the embryo grow.
  • CThe egg cell membrane can fuse with the sperm cell membrane.
  • DThey are lined with cilia that helps move substances away.
  • EThey are haploid and thus contain one copy of each chromosome.

Q4:

The diagram given shows a sperm cell.

What structure is represented by label 1?

  • ARibosome
  • BAcrosome
  • CMitochondria
  • DNucleus
  • ETail

What structure is represented by label 2?

  • AAcrosome
  • BRibosome
  • CNucleus
  • DTail
  • EMitochondria

What structure is represented by label 3?

  • AVacuole
  • BAcrosome
  • CNucleus
  • DMitochondria
  • ERibosome

Q5:

Root hair cells are examples of specialized cells found in a plant. Which of the following statements is not a specialization of root hair cells?

  • AThey contain a large amount of chlorophyll so photosynthesis can occur at a faster rate.
  • BThey contain many mitochondria to provide energy for active transport of mineral ions.
  • CThey have a large surface area to take in water from the soil.
  • DThey connect to the xylem to transport water and minerals around the plant.

Q6:

Muscle cells have many adaptations to help them function.

Which parts of the muscle cells slide over each other to contract the fibers?

  • AGlycogen
  • BProtein fibers
  • CStarch
  • DNucleus
  • EMitochondria

Which part of the muscle cell allows respiration to take place?

  • ANucleus
  • BMitochondria
  • CGlycogen
  • DStarch
  • EProtein fibers

In the muscle cell, glucose is stored when it is not needed for respiration. Which compound is glucose stored as?

  • AGlycogen
  • BAmylase
  • CGlucagon
  • DStarch
  • EProtein

Q7:

State whether the following statements about specialized cells are true or false.

Sperm cells contain many mitochondria to provide the energy they require for movement.

  • AFalse
  • BTrue

Ciliated epithelial cells have hair-like projections called cilia to decrease the cell surface area.

  • AFalse
  • BTrue

Q8:

Which of the following best explains why sperm cells contain many mitochondria?

  • ASperm cells contain many mitochondria to allow the sperm to produce large amounts of glucose.
  • BSperm cells contain many mitochondria to transfer genetic material during fertilization.
  • CSperm cells contain many mitochondria to break down the coating of the egg cell when they combine.
  • DSperm cells contain many mitochondria to provide them with energy needed for movement.

Q9:

Which of the following is correct about the genetic material contained in sperm and egg cells?

  • ASperm cells contain half the amount of DNA that egg cells do.
  • BEgg cells contain half the amount of DNA that sperm cells do.
  • CSperm and egg cells are haploid, so they contain half the genetic material of a normal body cell.
  • DSperm and egg cells contain double the normal number of chromosomes of a normal body cell.

Q10:

Which specialized cells are described as cells that carry electrical impulses to allow rapid responses in the body?

  • AEpithelial cells
  • BSperm cells
  • CEndocrine cells
  • DNerve cells

Q11:

The diagram shows a basic outline of ciliated epithelial cells. Which of the following best explains how a ciliated epithelial cell is adapted for its function?

  • ACiliated epithelial cells have small flagella that act to propel the cells through the body.
  • BCiliated epithelial cells have tiny folds in the membrane to increase the amount of substances that can be absorbed.
  • CCiliated epithelial cells have finger-like projections that can produce wave-like motion that moves substances along.
  • DCiliated epithelial cells contain a large, central mitochondrion to increase the amount of cellular respiration.

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