Worksheet: Specialised Cells

In this worksheet, we will practice recalling different specialised cells, describing their adaptations, and relating these adaptations to their functions.


Which of the following is not an adaptation of nerve cells?

  • ALong axons can carry electrical impulses over large distances.
  • BNerve cells contain lots of ribosomes to synthesize large amounts of proteins.
  • CNerve cell endings contain neurotransmitters that can diffuse across synapses and pass the impulse to another nerve cell.
  • DNerve cells have many dendrites that can transfer information to other nerve cells.
  • EAxons are surrounded by a myelin sheath that acts as an electrical insulator to speed up the rate of conduction.


Which of the following is not an adaptation of sperm cells?

  • AContaining special proteins that allow contraction of muscles
  • BHaving many mitochondria to provide energy via respiration
  • CThe head’s containing an acrosome which has enzymes that break down the coating of the egg
  • DHaving a long tail to help them move through the female reproductive system
  • EHaving a large nucleus containing the genetic material that needs to be passed on


Which of the following is not an adaptation of egg cells?

  • AThe egg cell membrane can fuse with the sperm cell membrane.
  • BThe cytoplasm contains a large volume of nutrients to help the embryo grow.
  • CThey have a protective jelly coat that hardens after fertilization.
  • DThey are haploid and thus contain one copy of each chromosome.
  • EThey are lined with cilia that helps move substances away.


The diagram given shows a sperm cell.

What structure is represented by label 1?

  • ANucleus
  • BTail
  • CMitochondria
  • DRibosome
  • EAcrosome

What structure is represented by label 2?

  • ANucleus
  • BAcrosome
  • CMitochondria
  • DTail
  • ERibosome

What structure is represented by label 3?

  • ANucleus
  • BRibosome
  • CVacuole
  • DAcrosome
  • EMitochondria


Root hair cells are examples of specialized cells found in a plant. Which of the following statements is not a specialization of root hair cells?

  • AThey have a large surface area to take in water from the soil.
  • BThey connect to the xylem to transport water and minerals around the plant.
  • CThey contain many mitochondria to provide energy for active transport of mineral ions.
  • DThey contain a large amount of chlorophyll so photosynthesis can occur at a faster rate.


Muscle cells have many adaptations to help them function.

Which parts of the muscle cells slide over each other to contract the fibers?

  • AProtein fibers
  • BGlycogen
  • CMitochondria
  • DStarch
  • ENucleus

Which part of the muscle cell allows respiration to take place?

  • AStarch
  • BMitochondria
  • CGlycogen
  • DProtein fibers
  • ENucleus

In the muscle cell, glucose is stored when it is not needed for respiration. Which compound is glucose stored as?

  • AAmylase
  • BStarch
  • CGlycogen
  • DProtein
  • EGlucagon

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