Worksheet: Specialised Cells

In this worksheet, we will practice recalling different specialised cells, describing their adaptations, and relating these adaptations to their functions.

Q1:

Which of the following is not an adaptation of nerve cells?

  • ALong axons can carry electrical impulses over large distances.
  • BNerve cells contain lots of ribosomes to synthesize large amounts of proteins.
  • CNerve cell endings contain neurotransmitters that can diffuse across synapses and pass the impulse to another nerve cell.
  • DNerve cells have many dendrites that can transfer information to other nerve cells.
  • EAxons are surrounded by a myelin sheath that acts as an electrical insulator to speed up the rate of conduction.

Q2:

Which of the following is not an adaptation of sperm cells?

  • AContaining special proteins that allow contraction of muscles
  • BHaving many mitochondria to provide energy via respiration
  • CThe head’s containing an acrosome which has enzymes that break down the coating of the egg
  • DHaving a long tail to help them move through the female reproductive system
  • EHaving a large nucleus containing the genetic material that needs to be passed on

Q3:

Which of the following is not an adaptation of egg cells?

  • AThe egg cell membrane can fuse with the sperm cell membrane.
  • BThe cytoplasm contains a large volume of nutrients to help the embryo grow.
  • CThey have a protective jelly coat that hardens after fertilization.
  • DThey are haploid and thus contain one copy of each chromosome.
  • EThey are lined with cilia that helps move substances away.

Q4:

The diagram given shows a sperm cell.

What structure is represented by label 1?

  • ANucleus
  • BTail
  • CMitochondria
  • DRibosome
  • EAcrosome

What structure is represented by label 2?

  • ANucleus
  • BAcrosome
  • CMitochondria
  • DTail
  • ERibosome

What structure is represented by label 3?

  • ANucleus
  • BRibosome
  • CVacuole
  • DAcrosome
  • EMitochondria

Q5:

Root hair cells are examples of specialized cells found in a plant. Which of the following statements is not a specialization of root hair cells?

  • AThey have a large surface area to take in water from the soil.
  • BThey connect to the xylem to transport water and minerals around the plant.
  • CThey contain many mitochondria to provide energy for active transport of mineral ions.
  • DThey contain a large amount of chlorophyll so photosynthesis can occur at a faster rate.

Q6:

Muscle cells have many adaptations to help them function.

Which parts of the muscle cells slide over each other to contract the fibers?

  • AProtein fibers
  • BGlycogen
  • CMitochondria
  • DStarch
  • ENucleus

Which part of the muscle cell allows respiration to take place?

  • AStarch
  • BMitochondria
  • CGlycogen
  • DProtein fibers
  • ENucleus

In the muscle cell, glucose is stored when it is not needed for respiration. Which compound is glucose stored as?

  • AAmylase
  • BStarch
  • CGlycogen
  • DProtein
  • EGlucagon

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