Worksheet: Solubility Products

In this worksheet, we will practice calculating the solubility product of an ionic material and using it to find the concentrations of dissolved ions.

Q1:

The aqueous solubility product of a compound may provide an underestimate of its solubility if the dissociated anion reacts with water. Which of the following slightly soluble compounds displays the largest fractional difference between the observed solubility and the estimated value?

  • A B a S O 4
  • B A g C l
  • C H g I 2 2
  • D C a F 2
  • E K B r

Q2:

What is the correct expression for the solubility product of laurionite, P b C l ( O H ) ?

  • A 𝐾 s p = [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] P b C l ( O H ) P b C l O H 2 +
  • B 𝐾 s p = [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] P b C l O H P b C l ( O H ) 2 +
  • C 𝐾 s p = 1 [ ] [ ] [ ] P b C l O H 2 +
  • D 𝐾 s p = [ P b ] [ C l ] [ O H ] 2 +
  • E 𝐾 s p = [ P b C l ( O H ) ] [ P b ] [ C l ] [ O H ] 2 +

Q3:

What is the correct expression for the solubility product of aluminum(III) hydroxide?

  • A 𝐾 s p = [ ] [ ] [ ] A l O H A l ( O H ) 3 + 3 3
  • B 𝐾 s p = [ A l ] [ O H ] 3 +
  • C 𝐾 s p = [ ] [ ] [ ] A l ( O H ) A l O H 3 3 + 3
  • D 𝐾 s p = [ A l ] [ O H ] 3 + 3
  • E 𝐾 s p = 1 [ ] [ ] A l O H 3 + 3

Q4:

What is the correct expression for the solubility product of silver(I) sulphate?

  • A 𝐾 s p = [ ] [ ] [ ] A g S O A g S O 2 4 + 4 2 2
  • B 𝐾 s p = [ ] [ ] [ ] A g S O A g S O + 4 2 2 4 2
  • C 𝐾 s p = 1 [ ] [ ] A g S O + 4 2 2
  • D 𝐾 s p = [ A g ] [ S O ] + 2 4 2
  • E 𝐾 s p = [ A g ] [ S O ] + 4 2

Q5:

What is the correct expression for the solubility product of barium(II) sulphate?

  • A 𝐾 s p = [ ] [ ] [ ] B a S O B a S O 4 2 + 4 2
  • B 𝐾 s p = [ ] [ ] [ ] B a S O B a S O 2 + 4 2 4
  • C 𝐾 s p = 1 [ ] [ ] B a S O 2 + 4 2
  • D 𝐾 s p = [ B a ] [ S O ] 2 + 4 2
  • E 𝐾 s p = [ B a S O ] [ B a ] [ S O ] 4 2 + 4 2

Q6:

The mineral apatite, C a ( P O ) O H 5 4 3 , is a source of phosphate for fertilizers. Consider the shown equilibrium. What is the correct expression for the solubility product of apatite?

  • A 𝐾 s p = 1 [ ] [ ] [ ] C a P O O H 2 + 4 3
  • B 𝐾 s p = [ C a ] [ P O ] [ O H ] 2 + 4 3
  • C 𝐾 s p = [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] C a ( P O ) O H C a P O O H 5 4 3 2 + 4 3
  • D 𝐾 s p = [ C a ] [ P O ] [ O H ] 2 + 5 4 3 3
  • E 𝐾 s p = [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] C a P O O H C a ( P O ) O H 2 + 4 3 5 4 3

Q7:

Magnesium ammonium phosphate is an almost insoluble substance used in tests for magnesium. Consider the shown equilibrium. What is the correct expression for the solubility product of magnesium ammonium phosphate?

  • A 𝐾 s p = [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] M g ( N H ) P O M g N H P O 4 4 2 + 4 + 4 3
  • B 𝐾 s p = [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] M g N H P O M g ( N H ) P O 2 + 4 + 4 3 4 4
  • C 𝐾 s p = 1 [ ] [ ] [ ] M g N H P O 2 + 4 + 4 3
  • D 𝐾 s p = [ M g ] [ N H ] [ P O ] 2 + 4 + 4 3
  • E 𝐾 s p = [ M g ( N H ) P O ] [ M g ] [ N H ] [ P O ] 4 4 2 + 4 + 4 3

Q8:

Magnesium hydroxide is the active ingredient in milk of magnesia. Consider the shown equilibrium. What is the correct expression for the solubility product of magnesium hydroxide?

  • A 𝐾 s p = 1 [ ] [ ] M g O H
  • B 𝐾 s p = [ M g ] [ O H ] 2 +
  • C 𝐾 s p = [ ] [ ] [ ] M g ( O H ) M g O H 2
  • D 𝐾 s p = [ M g ] [ O H ] 2 + 2
  • E 𝐾 s p = [ ] [ ] [ ] M g O H M g ( O H ) 2

Q9:

Calcium carbonate is the active ingredient in many over-the-counter chewable antacids. Consider the shown equilibrium. What is the correct expression for the solubility product of calcium carbonate?

  • A 𝐾 s p = [ ] [ ] [ ] C a C O C a C O 3 3
  • B 𝐾 s p = 1 [ ] [ ] C a C O 3
  • C 𝐾 s p = [ ] [ ] [ ] C a C O C a C O 3 3
  • D 𝐾 s p = [ C a ] [ C O ] 2 + 3 2
  • E 𝐾 s p = [ C a C O ] [ C a ] [ C O ] 3 2 + 3 2

Q10:

Silver iodide, A g I , is a poorly soluble ionic solid with antiseptic properties. Consider the shown equilibrium. What is the correct expression for the solubility product of silver iodide?

  • A 𝐾 s p = 1 [ ] [ ] A g I +
  • B 𝐾 s p = [ A g ] [ I ] + 2
  • C 𝐾 s p = [ ] [ ] [ ] A g I A g I +
  • D 𝐾 s p = [ A g ] [ I ] +
  • E 𝐾 s p = [ ] [ ] [ ] A g I A g I +

Q11:

Public Health Service standards for drinking water set a maximum of 250 mg/L ( 2 . 6 0 × 1 0 M) of S O 4 2 because of its laxative effects. What is the concentration of S O 4 2 , in milligrams per liter, in natural water that is saturated with C a S O 4 (gyp water) as a result of passing through soil containing gypsum, C a S O · 2 H O 4 2 ? The 𝐾 s p for C a S O · 2 H O 4 2 is 6 . 1 × 1 0 .

Q12:

What is the concentration of O H in a saturated solution of M n ( O H ) 2 ? The 𝐾 s p of M n ( O H ) 2 is 2 × 1 0 1 3 .

  • A 1 × 1 0 4 M
  • B 7 × 1 0 3 M
  • C 2 × 1 0 6 M
  • D 7 × 1 0 5 M
  • E 4 × 1 0 5 M

Q13:

What is the concentration of A g + in a saturated solution of A g S O 2 4 ? The 𝐾 s p for A g S O 2 4 is 1 . 2 × 1 0 5 .

  • A 5 . 2 × 1 0 2 M
  • B 9 . 0 × 1 0 3 M
  • C 9 . 2 × 1 0 2 M
  • D 2 . 9 × 1 0 2 M
  • E 1 . 5 × 1 0 1 M

Q14:

What is the concentration of I in a saturated solution of A g I ? The 𝐾 s p for A g I is 1 . 5 × 1 0 .

  • A 2 . 5 × 1 0 M
  • B 1 . 7 × 1 0 M
  • C 3 . 6 × 1 0 M
  • D 1 . 2 × 1 0 M
  • E 5 . 9 × 1 0 M

Q15:

In a saturated solution of T l C l , [ T l ] M + = 1 . 2 1 × 1 0 and [ C l ] M = 1 . 2 × 1 0 . What is the solubility product of T l C l ?

  • A 2 . 7 × 1 0
  • B 1 . 0 × 1 0
  • C 6 . 0 × 1 0
  • D 1 . 5 × 1 0
  • E 9 . 9 × 1 0

Q16:

What is the concentration of M g 2 + in a saturated solution of the mineral brucite, M g ( O H ) 2 ? The 𝐾 s p of M g ( O H ) 2 is 8 . 9 × 1 0 .

  • A 1 . 0 × 1 0 M
  • B 1 . 7 × 1 0 M
  • C 2 . 0 × 1 0 M
  • D 1 . 3 × 1 0 M
  • E 5 . 1 × 1 0 M

Q17:

What is the concentration of S r 2 + in a saturated solution of S r ( O H ) · 8 H O 2 2 ? The 𝐾 s p of S r ( O H ) · 8 H O 2 2 is 3 . 2 × 1 0 .

  • A 5 . 4 × 1 0 M
  • B 6 . 8 × 1 0 M
  • C 8 . 9 × 1 0 M
  • D 4 . 3 × 1 0 M
  • E 1 . 8 × 1 0 M

Q18:

In a saturated solution of G d ( S O ) 2 4 3 , [ G d ] 3 + = 0.132 M and [ S O ] 4 2 = 0.198 M. What is the solubility product of G d ( S O ) 2 4 3 ?

  • A 3 . 4 5 × 1 0
  • B 2 . 6 1 × 1 0
  • C 1 . 0 2 × 1 0
  • D 1 . 3 5 × 1 0
  • E 9 . 0 2 × 1 0

Q19:

In a saturated solution of C e ( I O ) 3 4 , [ C e ] 4 + = 1 . 8 × 1 0 M and [ I O ] 3 = 2 . 6 × 1 0 M. What is the solubility product of C e ( I O ) 3 4 ?

  • A 6 . 9 × 1 0
  • B 4 . 7 × 1 0
  • C 7 . 1 × 1 0
  • D 8 . 2 × 1 0
  • E 1 . 0 × 1 0

Q20:

In a saturated solution of B a S O 4 , [ B a ] = 0 . 5 0 0 M 2 + and [ S O ] = M 4 2 2 . 1 6 × 1 0 . What is the solubility product of B a S O 4 ?

  • A 7 . 5 2 × 1 0
  • B 6 . 1 2 × 1 0
  • C 9 . 6 2 × 1 0
  • D 1 . 0 8 × 1 0
  • E 8 . 8 8 × 1 0

Q21:

In a saturated solution of A g S O 2 4 , [ A g ] + = 2 . 4 0 × 1 0 M and [ S O ] 4 2 = 2 . 0 5 × 1 0 M. What is the solubility product of A g S O 2 4 ?

  • A 1 . 0 1 × 1 0
  • B 4 . 9 2 × 1 0
  • C 5 . 0 4 × 1 0
  • D 1 . 1 8 × 1 0
  • E 3 . 6 6 × 1 0

Q22:

Under what circumstances does a sample of solid A g C l ( 𝐾 = 1 . 6 × 1 0 ) s p 1 0 completely dissolve in pure water?

  • AWhen a salt or acid (e.g., H C l ) with a common ion is also present in solution
  • BWhen the solid is dissolved in boiling water
  • CWhen the solid is finely divided so that it has a large surface area
  • DWhen there is so little solid, or so much solvent, that the solution is not saturated

Q23:

The standard free energies of formation for solid silver(I) chloride and its aqueous ions are given in the table.

Material A g C l ( ) s A g ( ) + a q C l ( ) a q
Standard Gibbs Free Energy of Formation Δ 𝐺 f ( k J / m o l ) 1 0 9 . 8 77.1 1 3 1 . 2

Calculate the solubility product for silver(I) chloride at 25.0℃ to 3 significant figures.

  • A 5 . 5 4 × 1 0
  • B 1 . 8 0 × 1 0
  • C 2 . 2 7 × 1 0
  • D 1 . 7 4 × 1 0
  • E 5 . 7 3 × 1 0

Q24:

Which of the following is the correct expression for the solubility product, 𝐾 s p , of A g S O 2 4 ?

  • A 𝐾 s p = [ ] [ ] [ ] A g S O A g S O + 4 2 2 4 2
  • B 𝐾 s p = [ A g ] [ S O ] + 4 2
  • C 𝐾 s p = 1 [ ] [ ] A g S O + 4 2 2
  • D 𝐾 s p = [ A g ] [ S O ] + 2 4 2
  • E 𝐾 s p = 1 [ ] [ ] A g S O + 4 2

Q25:

Which of the following is the correct expression for the solubility product, 𝐾 s p , of P b ( O H ) 2 ?

  • A 𝐾 s p = [ P b 2 + ] [ O H ] [ P b ( O H ) 2 ]
  • B 𝐾 s p = [ P b 2 + ] [ O H ]
  • C 𝐾 s p = 1 [ P b 2 + ] [ O H ]
  • D 𝐾 s p = [ P b 2 + ] [ O H ] 2
  • E 𝐾 s p = 1 [ P b 2 + ] [ O H ]

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