Worksheet: Solubility Products

In this worksheet, we will practice calculating the solubility product of an ionic material and using it to find the concentrations of dissolved ions.

Q1:

The aqueous solubility product of a compound may provide an underestimate of its solubility if the dissociated anion reacts with water. Which of the following slightly soluble compounds displays the largest fractional difference between the observed solubility and the estimated value?

  • A H g I 2 2
  • B B a S O 4
  • C C a F 2
  • D A g C l
  • E K B r

Q2:

What is the correct expression for the solubility product of laurionite, PbCl(OH)?

  • A đŸ = 1 [ ] [ ] [ ] s p 2 + – – P b C l O H
  • B đŸ = [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] s p 2 + – – P b C l ( O H ) P b C l O H
  • C đŸ = [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] s p 2 + – – P b C l O H P b C l ( O H )
  • D đŸ s p 2 + – – = [ P b C l ( O H ) ] [ P b ] [ C l ] [ O H ]
  • E đŸ s p 2 + – – = [ P b ] [ C l ] [ O H ]

Q3:

What is the correct expression for the solubility product of aluminum(III) hydroxide?

  • A đŸ = [ ] [ ] [ ] s p 3 + – 3 A l O H A l ( O H ) 
  • B đŸ s p 3 + – = [ A l ] [ O H ]
  • C đŸ = [ ] [ ] [ ] s p 3 3 + – A l ( O H ) A l O H 
  • D đŸ s p 3 + – 3 = [ A l ] [ O H ]
  • E đŸ = 1 [ ] [ ] s p 3 + – A l O H 

Q4:

What is the correct expression for the solubility product of silver(I) sulfate?

  • A đŸ = 1 [ ] [ ] s p + 4 2 – A g S O 
  • B đŸ = [ ] [ ] [ ] s p + 4 2 – 2 4 A g S O A g S O 
  • C đŸ s p + 4 2 – = [ A g ] [ S O ]
  • D đŸ = [ ] [ ] [ ] s p 2 4 + 4 2 – A g S O A g S O 
  • E đŸ s p + 2 4 2 – = [ A g ] [ S O ]

Q5:

What is the correct expression for the solubility product of barium(II) sulfate?

  • A đŸ = [ ] [ ] [ ] s p 2 + 4 2 – 4 B a S O B a S O
  • B đŸ s p 2 + 4 2 – = [ B a ] [ S O ]
  • C đŸ = [ ] [ ] [ ] s p 4 2 + 4 2 – B a S O B a S O
  • D đŸ s p 4 2 + 4 2 – = [ B a S O ] [ B a ] [ S O ]
  • E đŸ = 1 [ ] [ ] s p 2 + 4 2 – B a S O

Q6:

The mineral apatite, Ca(PO)OH543, is a source of phosphate for fertilizers. Consider the shown equilibrium.Ca(PO)OH()5Ca()+3PO()+OH()5432+43––saqaqaq What is the correct expression for the solubility product of apatite?

  • A đŸ = [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] s p 5 4 3 2 + 4 3 – – C a ( P O ) O H C a P O O H  
  • B đŸ s p 2 + 4 3 – – = [ C a ] [ P O ] [ O H ]
  • C đŸ s p 2 + 5 4 3 – 3 – = [ C a ] [ P O ] [ O H ]
  • D đŸ = 1 [ ] [ ] [ ] s p 2 + 4 3 – – C a P O O H  
  • E đŸ = [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] s p 2 + 4 3 – – 5 4 3 C a P O O H C a ( P O ) O H  

Q7:

Magnesium ammonium phosphate is an almost insoluble substance used in tests for magnesium. Consider the shown equilibrium. Mg(NH)PO()Mg()+NH()+PO()442+4+43–saqaqaq What is the correct expression for the solubility product of magnesium ammonium phosphate?

  • A đŸ s p 4 4 2 + 4 + 4 3 – = [ M g ( N H ) P O ] [ M g ] [ N H ] [ P O ]
  • B đŸ = [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] s p 2 + 4 + 4 3 – 4 4 M g N H P O M g ( N H ) P O
  • C đŸ s p 2 + 4 + 4 3 – = [ M g ] [ N H ] [ P O ]
  • D đŸ = 1 [ ] [ ] [ ] s p 2 + 4 + 4 3 – M g N H P O
  • E đŸ = [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] s p 4 4 2 + 4 + 4 3 – M g ( N H ) P O M g N H P O

Q8:

Magnesium hydroxide is the active ingredient in milk of magnesia. Consider the shown equilibrium. Mg(OH)()Mg()+2OH()22+–saqaq What is the correct expression for the solubility product of magnesium hydroxide?

  • A đŸ = 1 [ ] [ ] s p – M g O H   
  • B đŸ s p 2 + – = [ M g ] [ O H ]
  • C đŸ s p 2 + – 2 = [ M g ] [ O H ]
  • D đŸ = [ ] [ ] [ ] s p 2 – M g ( O H ) M g O H   
  • E đŸ = [ ] [ ] [ ] s p – 2 M g O H M g ( O H )   

Q9:

Calcium carbonate is the active ingredient in many over-the-counter chewable antacids. Consider the shown equilibrium. CaCO()Ca()+CO()32+32–saqaq What is the correct expression for the solubility product of calcium carbonate?

  • A đŸ = 1 [ ] [ ] s p 3 C a C O    
  • B đŸ = s p 2 + 3 2 – [ C a ] [ C O ]
  • C đŸ = [ ] [ ] [ ] s p 3 3 C a C O C a C O    
  • D đŸ s p 3 2 + 3 2 – = [ C a C O ] [ C a ] [ C O ]
  • E đŸ = [ ] [ ] [ ] s p 3 3 C a C O C a C O    

Q10:

Silver iodide, AgI, is a poorly soluble ionic solid with antiseptic properties. Consider the shown equilibrium. AgI()Ag()+I()saqaq+– What is the correct expression for the solubility product of silver iodide?

  • A đŸ = [ ] [ ] [ ] s p + – A g I A g I
  • B đŸ s p + – = [ A g ] [ I ]
  • C đŸ = [ ] [ ] [ ] s p + – A g I A g I
  • D đŸ = 1 [ ] [ ] s p + – A g I
  • E đŸ s p + – 2 = [ A g ] [ I ]

Q11:

Public Health Service standards for drinking water set a maximum of 250 mg/L (2.60×10 M) of SO42– because of its laxative effects. What is the concentration of SO42–, in milligrams per liter, in natural water that is saturated with CaSO4 (gyp water) as a result of passing through soil containing gypsum, CaSO·2HO42? The đŸsp for CaSO·2HO42 is 6.1×10.

Q12:

What is the concentration of OH– in a saturated solution of Mn(OH)2? The đŸsp of Mn(OH)2 is 2×10.

  • A 4 × 1 0   M
  • B 1 × 1 0  ïŠȘ M
  • C 2 × 1 0  ïŠŹ M
  • D 7 × 1 0   M
  • E 7 × 1 0   M

Q13:

What is the concentration of Ag+ in a saturated solution of AgSO24? The đŸsp for AgSO24 is 1.2×10.

  • A 9 . 0 × 1 0   M
  • B 5 . 2 × 1 0   M
  • C 2 . 9 × 1 0   M
  • D 1 . 5 × 1 0   M
  • E 9 . 2 × 1 0   M

Q14:

What is the concentration of I– in a saturated solution of AgI? The đŸsp for AgI is 1.5×10ïŠ±ïŠ§ïŠŹ.

  • A 5 . 9 × 1 0  ïŠź M
  • B 3 . 6 × 1 0  ïŠź M
  • C 1 . 2 × 1 0  ïŠź M
  • D 2 . 5 × 1 0  ïŠź M
  • E 1 . 7 × 1 0  ïŠź M

Q15:

In a saturated solution of TlCl, [Tl]=M+1.21×10 and [Cl]=M–1.2×10. What is the solubility product of TlCl?

  • A 1 . 0 × 1 0  
  • B 1 . 5 × 1 0  ïŠȘ
  • C 2 . 7 × 1 0  
  • D 9 . 9 × 1 0  
  • E 6 . 0 × 1 0  ïŠȘ

Q16:

What is the concentration of Mg2+ in a saturated solution of the mineral brucite, Mg(OH)2? The đŸsp of Mg(OH)2 is 8.9×10.

  • A 5 . 1 × 1 0  ïŠȘ M
  • B 1 . 0 × 1 0  ïŠȘ M
  • C 1 . 7 × 1 0  ïŠȘ M
  • D 1 . 3 × 1 0  ïŠȘ M
  • E 2 . 0 × 1 0  ïŠȘ M

Q17:

What is the concentration of Sr2+ in a saturated solution of Sr(OH)·8HO22? The đŸsp of Sr(OH)·8HO22 is 3.2×10ïŠȘ.

  • A 4 . 3 × 1 0   M
  • B 8 . 9 × 1 0   M
  • C 1 . 8 × 1 0   M
  • D 6 . 8 × 1 0   M
  • E 5 . 4 × 1 0   M

Q18:

In a saturated solution of Gd(SO)243, [Gd]=0.132M3+ and [SO]=0.198M42–. What is the solubility product of Gd(SO)243?

  • A 1 . 0 2 × 1 0  
  • B 9 . 0 2 × 1 0  
  • C 3 . 4 5 × 1 0  
  • D 2 . 6 1 × 1 0  
  • E 1 . 3 5 × 1 0  ïŠȘ

Q19:

In a saturated solution of Ce(IO)34, [Ce]4+ = 1.8×10ïŠȘ M and [IO]3– = 2.6×10 M. What is the solubility product of Ce(IO)34?

  • A 4 . 7 × 1 0   
  • B 8 . 2 × 1 0   
  • C 6 . 9 × 1 0   
  • D 1 . 0 × 1 0  ïŠȘ ïŠŹ
  • E 7 . 1 × 1 0   

Q20:

In a saturated solution of BaSO4, [Ba]2+ = 0.500 M and [SO]42– = 2.16×10 M. What is the solubility product of BaSO4?

  • A 8 . 8 8 × 1 0  
  • B 1 . 0 8 × 1 0   
  • C 7 . 5 2 × 1 0  ïŠŻ
  • D 9 . 6 2 × 1 0   
  • E 6 . 1 2 × 1 0  ïŠŻ

Q21:

In a saturated solution of AgSO24, [Ag]+ = 2.40×10 M and [SO]42– = 2.05×10 M. What is the solubility product of AgSO24?

  • A 3 . 6 6 × 1 0  ïŠŹ
  • B 1 . 1 8 × 1 0  
  • C 5 . 0 4 × 1 0  ïŠź
  • D 4 . 9 2 × 1 0  ïŠȘ
  • E 1 . 0 1 × 1 0  

Q22:

Under what circumstances does a sample of solid AgCl(đŸ=1.6×10)sp completely dissolve in pure water?

  • AWhen a salt or acid (for example, HCl) with a common ion is also present in the solution
  • BWhen the solid is dissolved in boiling water
  • CWhen there is so little solid, or so much solvent, that the solution is not saturated
  • DWhen the solid is finely divided so that it has a large surface area

Q23:

The standard free energies of formation for solid silver(I) chloride and its aqueous ions are given in the table.

Material A g C l ( ) s A g ( ) + a q C l ( ) – a q
Standard Gibbs Free Energy of Formation Δđș⊔f(kJ/mol) − 1 0 9 . 8 77.1 − 1 3 1 . 2

Calculate the solubility product for silver(I) chloride at 25.0∘C to 3 significant figures.

  • A 5 . 5 4 × 1 0   ïŠź
  • B 1 . 8 0 × 1 0   
  • C 1 . 7 4 × 1 0   
  • D 5 . 7 3 × 1 0  ïŠŻ
  • E 2 . 2 7 × 1 0   ïŠȘ

Q24:

Which of the following is the correct expression for the solubility product, đŸsp, of AgSO24?

  • A đŸ = 1 [ ] [ ] s p + 4 2 – A g S O 
  • B đŸ = 1 [ ] [ ] s p + 4 2 – A g S O
  • C đŸ s p + 2 4 2 – = [ A g ] [ S O ]
  • D đŸ s p + 4 2 – = [ A g ] [ S O ]
  • E đŸ = [ ] [ ] [ ] s p + 4 2 – 2 4 A g S O A g S O 

Q25:

Which of the following is the correct expression for the solubility product, đŸsp, of Pb(OH)2?

  • A đŸ [ ] [ ] [ ] s p 2 + – 2 = P b O H P b ( O H ) 
  • B đŸ 1 [ ] [ ] s p 2 + – = P b O H
  • C đŸ 1 [ ] [ ] s p 2 + – = P b O H 
  • D đŸ s p 2 + = [ P b ] [ O H ]
  • E đŸ s p 2 + – 2 = [ P b ] [ O H ]

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