# Worksheet: Normal Vibrational Modes

Q1:

An organ pipe of length 3.00 m is closed at both ends.

The speed of sound is 343 m/s.

Compute the wavelength of the first mode of resonance.

Compute the wavelength of the second mode of resonance.

Compute the wavelength of the third mode of resonance.

Compute the frequency of the first mode of resonance.

Compute the frequency of the second mode of resonance.

Compute the frequency of the third mode of resonance.

Q2:

A sound wave of a frequency of 2.00 kHz is produced by a string oscillating in the mode. The linear mass density of the string is 0.0065 kg/m and the length of the string is 1.50 m. What is the tension in the string?

Q3:

A string has a linear mass density , a length , a tension of , and oscillates in a mode . What is the frequency of the oscillations?

Q4:

A nylon guitar string is fixed between two lab posts 2.00 m apart. The string has a linear mass density of 7.20 g/m and is placed under a tension of 160.0 N. The string resonates at the mode when it is plucked. The string is placed next to a tube of length that is open at both ends, and the sound wave produced by the vibrating string resonates with the fundamental mode of the tube. Find , using a value of 343 m/s for the speed of sound in the tube.

Q5:

A string with a length of 4.0 m is held under a constant tension. The string has a linear mass density of 0.0060 kg/m. Two resonant frequencies of the string are 400 Hz and 480 Hz. There are no resonant frequencies between the two frequencies.

What is the wavelength of 400 Hz mode?

What is the wavelength of the 480 Hz mode?

What is the tension in the string?

Q6:

A string on the violin has a length of 23.0 cm and a mass of 0.900 grams. The tension in the string 850 N. The string is plucked and oscillates in the mode. The temperature in the room is .

What is the speed of the wave on the string?

What is the wavelength of the standing wave produced on the string?

What is the frequency of the oscillating string?

What is the frequency of the sound produced?

What is the wavelength of the sound produced?

Q7:

The column of air in a tube, which is closed at one end, has a fundamental frequency of 256 Hz. Some students fill the tube with water, and then slowly lower the water level by draining the tube. Whilst lowering the water level, the students repeatedly ring a 256-Hz tuning fork and listen for resonance with the air column. When the column of air reaches a length of 0.336 m, resonance first occurs.

What is the air temperature in the tube?

If the water level continues to lower, what length column of air will produce the second occurrence of resonance?

Q8:

What is the length of a tube that has a fundamental frequency of 176 Hz and a first overtone of 352 Hz if the speed of sound is 343 m/s?

Q9:

A 4.0-m-long tube, open at one end and closed at one end, is in a room where the temperature is . A speaker capable of producing variable frequencies is placed at the open end and is used to cause the tube to resonate.

What is the wavelength of the fundamental frequency of the tube?

What is the fundamental frequency of the tube?

What is the wavelength of the first overtone of the tube?

What is the frequency of the first overtone of the tube?

Q10:

A bassoon has a fundamental frequency of 90.0 Hz. It is open at both ends.

What is the frequency of the first overtone?

What is the frequency of the second overtone?

What is the frequency of the third overtone?

Q11:

A string has a length of 2.00 m, a linear mass density of 0.00560 kg/m, and a tension of N. For an air temperature of , what should the length of a pipe that is open at both ends and has the same frequency as the fifth resonant mode of the string be?

Q12:

As a crude approximation, voice production can be modeled as sound waves resonating in a tube that is closed at one end. A tube length of 0.150 m models the typical length of the breathing passages and mouth used to generate speech. For modeling voice production, use a value of 8.314 J/mol⋅K for the universal gas constant and for the temperature in the tube.

Determine the fundamental frequency of the voice production tube for a 0.150 m tube, taking the air temperature to be .

Determine the fundamental frequency of the voice production tube if helium is contained in the tube. Use a value 1.40 for the specific heat ratio of helium and 4.00 g/mol for its molar mass. Assume the same temperature dependence of wave speed in helium as in air.

Q13:

An oboe can be modelled as a tube that is open at both ends. What length should an oboe have to produce a fundamental frequency of 110 Hz on a day when the speed of sound is 343 m/s?

Q14:

The ear canal resonates like a tube closed at one end. Ear canals range in length from 1.62 to 2.43 cm in an average population.

Determine the lower bound of the range of fundamental resonant frequencies for an air temperature of .

Determine the upper bound of the range of fundamental resonant frequencies for an air temperature of .

Q15:

A tube is capped with a movable piston, creating a tube with a variable length. A tuning fork of frequency 256 Hz is struck and placed next to the tube and the piston is slid down the tube until resonance occurs. Resonance occurs when the piston is 231 cm from the tube’s open end. The piston is slid further down the tube until the resonance occurs again; this time, the piston is 165 cm from the open end of the tube.

What is the speed of sound in the tube?

How far from the open end of the tube would the piston be when resonance next occurs?

Q16:

A speaker powered by a signal generator is used to study resonance in a tube. The signal generator can be adjusted from a frequency of Hz to Hz. The speaker first vibrates air in a 0.95-meter tube that is open at both ends, and then one end of the tube is closed. The temperature in the room is .

What is the smallest normal mode number of the pipe that can be produced with both ends of the tube open?

What is the largest normal mode number of the pipe that can be produced with both ends of the tube open?

What is the largest normal mode number of the pipe that can be produced with one end of the tube closed?

Q17:

A 2.00-m-long string is stretched between two supports. The string has a tension that produces waves that have a speed of 50.0 m/s.

What is the wavelength of the first resonant mode on the string?

What is the wavelength of the second resonant mode on the string?

What is the wavelength of the third resonant mode on the string?

What is the frequency of the first resonant mode on the string?

What is the frequency of the second resonant mode on the string?

What is the frequency of the third resonant mode on the string?

Q18:

A tuba, which is closed at one end, has a fundamental frequency of 26.0 Hz. What is the frequency of its third overtone?

Q19:

An organ pipe is closed at one end. The pipe has a fundamental frequency of 512 Hz when the air temperature is .

What is the length of the organ pipe?

What is the organ pipe’s fundamental frequency at a temperature of ?

Q20:

Consider two wave functions and , where is measured in meters and is measured in seconds. The resultant wave form of the two functions is . In the case of , , , and .

The positions of the nodes of the wave function are measured from the point , in the positive -direction.

What is the position of the first node of the resultant wave form?

What is the position of the second node of the resultant wave form?

What is the position of the third node of the resultant wave form?

Q21:

A 0.296-meter tube, open at both ends, is studied on a day when the speed of sound is 340 m/s.

What is the tube’s fundamental frequency?

What is the frequency of the tube’s second harmonic?

Q22:

A 5.00-meter organ pipe is closed at one end. Find the frequency of the third mode of resonance. Use a value of 345 m/s for the speed of sound.

Q23:

A 0.800 m long tube is opened at both ends. The air temperature is . The air in the tube is oscillated using a speaker attached to a signal generator.

Find the wavelength of the first resonant mode of the tube.

Find the wavelength of the second resonant mode of the tube.

Find the frequency of the first resonant mode of the tube.

Find the frequency of the second resonant mode of the tube.

Q24:

A string is fixed at both end. The mass of the string is 0.00900 kg and the length is 3.00 m. The string is under a tension of 200.00 N. The string is driven by a variable frequency source to produce standing waves on the string.

Find the wavelength of the first mode of standing waves on the string.

Find the wavelength of the second mode of standing waves on the string.

Find the wavelength of the third mode of standing waves on the string.

Find the wavelength of the fourth mode of standing waves on the string.

Find the frequency of the first mode of standing waves on the string.

Find the frequency of the second mode of standing waves on the string.

Find the frequency of the third mode of standing waves on the string.

Find the frequency of the fourth mode of standing waves on the string.

Q25:

A 2.5-meter pipe, open at both ends, is placed in a room at a temperature . A speaker that is capable of producing variable frequencies is placed at the open end and is used to cause the tube to resonate.

What is the fundamental frequency of the pipe?

What is the wavelength of the first overtone of the pipe?

Q26:

A flute plays a note with a frequency of 0.230 kHz. The flute can be modeled as a pipe open at both ends. What is the length of the tube if the note played is the fundamental frequency of the flute and the air in it has a temperature of

• A 1.54 m
• B 0.678 m
• C 0.384 m
• D 0.768 m
• E 0.339 m

Q27:

The frequencies of two successive modes of standing waves on a string are 258.36 Hz and 301.42 Hz. What is the first frequency above 100.00 Hz that would produce a standing wave?