Worksheet: The Big Bang and the Fate of the Universe

In this worksheet, we will practice describing the theories for how the universe began and the different eventualities of the universe.

Q1:

Cosmic microwave background radiation was emitted as radiation just after the big bang. It has been traveling through space since then, and the expansion of the universe has caused the wavelength of the radiation to . We now detect the background radiation as radiation.

  • Agamma, decrease, gamma
  • Bmicrowave, increase, microwave
  • Cmicrowave, increase, radio wave
  • Dmicrowave, decrease, gamma
  • Egamma, increase, microwave

Q2:

Which of the following observations is considered to be evidence for the existence of dark matter?

  • AThe expansion of the universe has been observed to be accelerating.
  • BThe redshift of distant galaxies has been observed to be proportional to their distance away from us.
  • CGalaxies have been observed to spin slower than expected.
  • DSupermassive black holes have been observed to exist at the center of every galaxy.

Q3:

If the density of the universe is than a particular value, then the universe will continue expanding forever. This eventuality is known as the .

  • Aless, Big Rip
  • Bless, Big Crunch
  • Cless, Big Splat
  • Dmore, Big Crunch
  • Emore, Big Rip

Q4:

Scientists have observed that the expansion of the universe is accelerating. Which of the following is thought to be the cause of this?

  • ADark energy
  • BAntimatter
  • CGravity
  • DThe cosmic microwave background
  • EDark matter

Q5:

Galaxies have been observed to spin much slower than expected. Which of the following is thought to be the cause of this?

  • AThere is more matter in each galaxy than can be accounted for by what we can observe. This matter is called dark matter.
  • BEach galaxy contains dark energy, which makes them spin slower.
  • CGravity is a repulsive force at large distances, therefore stars that are further away from the center of a galaxy orbit the galaxy slower.

Q6:

Which of the following elements was not present in the very early universe (before the formation of stars)?

  • AHydrogen
  • BLithium
  • CHelium
  • DUranium

Q7:

Which element was the most common element present in the very early universe?

  • AIron
  • BSodium
  • CHelium
  • DHydrogen
  • ELithium

Q8:

If the density of the universe is than a particular value, it will stop expanding and begin to contract. This eventuality is known as the .

  • Amore, Big Rip
  • Bmore, Big Crunch
  • Cless, Big Crunch
  • Dless, big bang
  • Emore, Big Sneeze

Q9:

The graph shows the relative size of the universe over time, including two possible outcomes. Point 𝐴 marks the big bang.

What eventuality is marked by point 𝐵?

  • AThe Big Twist
  • BThe Big Spin
  • CThe Big Yawn
  • DThe Big Rip
  • EThe Big Crunch

What eventuality is marked by point 𝐶?

  • AThe Big Squash
  • BThe Big Crunch
  • CThe Big Bounce
  • DThe Big Sneeze
  • EThe Big Rip

Q10:

List the following events in chronological order:

  1. The formation of the Sun
  2. The formation of Earth
  3. The big bang
  4. The emission of cosmic microwave background radiation
  5. The discovery of the cosmic microwave background
  • Aa, b, c, d, e
  • Bc, a, b, d, e
  • Ca, c, b, d, e
  • Dc, d, a, b, e
  • Ec, a, d, b, e

Q11:

The image shows the cosmic microwave background. At what point in the evolution of the universe was the radiation of the cosmic microwave background emitted?