Worksheet: Fractional Distillation of Crude Oil

In this worksheet, we will practice describing the use of fractional distillation in separating crude oil and identifying the properties and uses of key fractions.

Q1:

In which of the following are crude oil fractions arranged in order of increasing viscosity?

  • AGasoline < kerosene < diesel oil
  • BKerosene < gasoline < diesel oil
  • CDiesel oil < gasoline < kerosene
  • DKerosene < diesel oil < gasoline
  • EGasoline < diesel oil < kerosene

Q2:

Which of the following is the molecular formula of a hydrocarbon likely to be found in LPG?

  • A C H 6 1 4
  • B C H 1 2 2 6
  • C C H 7 0 1 4 2
  • D C H 2 4 5 0
  • E C H 4 1 0

Q3:

Which of the following is the molecular formula of a hydrocarbon likely to be found in gasoline?

  • A C H 2 4 5 0
  • B C H 6 0 1 2 2
  • C C H 1 6 3 4
  • D C H 8 1 8
  • E C H 3 8

Q4:

Which of the following statements is false?

  • ALubricating oils ignite more easily than diesel oil.
  • BLPG contains shorter hydrocarbon molecules than diesel oil.
  • CKerosene is distilled at a lower temperature than diesel oil.
  • DHeavy fuel oils have higher viscosities than diesel oil.
  • EGasoline has a lower boiling point than diesel oil.

Q5:

Crude oil fractions collected at lower temperatures during fractional distillation exhibit higher values for which of the following physical properties?

  • AMolecular size
  • BVolatility
  • CViscosity
  • DMelting point
  • EIgnition temperature

Q6:

Selected melting and boiling points of compounds extracted from three crude oil fractions are shown in the table.

Compound Melting Point (C) Boiling Point (C)
X 1 3 0 40
Y 48 391
Z 1 4 0 1

In which fraction of crude oil would compound X be found?

  • ADiesel oil
  • BLPG
  • CGasoline
  • DBitumen
  • EHeavy fuel oil

In which fraction of crude oil would compound Y be found?

  • ADiesel oil
  • BGasoline
  • CBitumen
  • DHeavy fuel oil
  • ELPG

In which fraction of crude oil would compound Z be found?

  • ALPG
  • BBitumen
  • CHeavy fuel oil
  • DGasoline
  • EDiesel oil

Q7:

Why are crude oil fractions described as non-renewable resources?

  • ACrude oil use is not sustainable because it is no longer naturally produced.
  • BCrude oil use is not sustainable because its production is very slow.
  • CProducts made from crude oil fractions are non-recyclable.
  • DCrude oil fractions cannot be reused after combustion.
  • EProducts made from crude oil fractions are non-biodegradable.

Q8:

In which application is kerosene used as the primary fuel?

  • APower stations
  • BAircraft
  • CDomestic heating
  • DTrains
  • ECars

Q9:

Which of the following statements is true?

  • AAll fractions of crude oil are used as fuels.
  • BMost fractions of crude oil are liquids at room temperature.
  • CFractional distillation involves a chemical reaction.
  • DFractional distillation involves the separation of crude oil into pure compounds.
  • EFractional distillation involves the separation of compounds using a pressure gradient.

Q10:

Which variable physical property of crude oil fractions enables their separation by fractional distillation?

  • ASolubility
  • BMelting point
  • CBoiling point
  • DFlammability
  • EViscosity

Q11:

Which of the following products are not commonly produced using petrochemicals?

  • AMedicines
  • BCooking oils
  • CPlastics
  • DFlavorings
  • EPaints

Q12:

At which of the following temperatures is crude oil heated at the base of a typical fractionating column?

  • A 2 0 0 C
  • B 4 0 0 C
  • C 1 0 0 C
  • D 5 0 C
  • E 6 0 0 C

Q13:

Which of the following is not an accurate description of crude oil?

  • ASynthetic
  • BFinite resource
  • CNonsustainable
  • DFossil fuel
  • EEnergy rich

Q14:

Which crude oil fraction is most useful as a fuel for large ships?

  • AGasoline
  • BDiesel oil
  • CKerosene
  • DHeavy fuel oil
  • ELPG

Q15:

Groups of crude oil fractions a–e are separated by heating crude oil to different temperatures. Labeled in the diagram are the regions of the fractionating column in which these groups of fractions are collected.

Which group of fractions is the most useful source of liquid compounds for petrochemical manufacturing?

  • Ab
  • Be
  • Ca
  • Dd
  • Ec

From which group of fractions are waxes and oils for lubrication most likely to be extracted?

  • Aa
  • Bc
  • Cb
  • De
  • Ed

Which two groups of fractions are the least useful as vehicle fuels?

  • Aa and e
  • Ba and b
  • Cb and c
  • Db and d
  • Ed and e

Which two groups of fractions are the most useful as automobile fuels?

  • Ad and e
  • Ba and d
  • Cc and d
  • Da and b
  • Eb and c

Q16:

A student distils a mixture containing all linear unbranched alkanes that are liquid at room temperature. During the distillation, the student measures the temperature of the liquid mixture and records the results in a graph. Labeled in the graph is the temperature at which one alkane, X, was collected.

How many carbon atoms are there in each molecule of alkane X?

In which fraction of crude oil is alkane X most likely to be found?

  • AKerosene
  • BDiesel oil
  • CGasoline
  • DHeavy fuel oil
  • ELPG

The liquid mixture is heated using a heating mantle set to a fixed temperature. Which of the following temperatures would be most suitable for the collection of alkane X?

  • A 1 1 5 C
  • B 5 5 C
  • C 9 5 C
  • D 7 5 C
  • E 6 5 C

How does the student know when the collection of each fraction is complete?

  • AThe temperature remains constant.
  • BThe liquid starts bubbling.
  • CThe liquid volume stops decreasing.
  • DThe temperature increases.
  • EThe liquid stops bubbling.

Q17:

Which of the following is the molecular formula of a hydrocarbon likely to be found in heavy fuel oil?

  • A C H 2 5 5 2
  • B C H 7 1 6
  • C C H 4
  • D C H 7 0 1 4 2
  • E C H 4 1 0

Q18:

Crude oil fractions A–F can be separated by fractional distillation and are collected at different heights in the fractionating column, as shown in the diagram.

Which of the labeled fractions is used for the surfacing of roads?

  • AB
  • BD
  • CC
  • DA
  • EF

Which of the labeled fractions is useful as a fuel in both cars and trains?

  • AC
  • BE
  • CB
  • DA
  • ED

Which of the labeled fractions is most useful as a fuel for domestic heating?

  • AE
  • BD
  • CB
  • DF
  • EC

Which of the labeled fractions is most useful as a fuel for power stations?

  • AE
  • BC
  • CA
  • DB
  • EF

Q19:

Shown in the diagram is a column used for the fractional distillation of crude oil. The relative collection heights of several crude oil fractions are labeled.

Identify fraction A.

  • ABitumen
  • BLubricating oil
  • CGasoline
  • DDiesel oil
  • ELPG

Identify fraction B.

  • AGasoline
  • BLubricating oil
  • CBitumen
  • DDiesel oil
  • ELPG

Identify fraction C.

  • AGasoline
  • BLPG
  • CDiesel oil
  • DBitumen
  • ELubricating oil

Identify fraction D.

  • ALubricating oil
  • BDiesel oil
  • CGasoline
  • DLPG
  • EBitumen

Q20:

Which crude oil fraction is most useful as a cooking fuel?

  • ADiesel oil
  • BKerosene
  • CLPG
  • DGasoline
  • EHeavy fuel oil

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