Lesson Worksheet: Treating Diseases with Antibiotics Biology

In this worksheet, we will practice describing ways that antibiotics affect bacterial cells, how antibiotic resistance develops, and evaluating antibiotic use in treating bacterial disease.


How does antibiotic resistance develop in bacteria?

  • AMutation and natural selection
  • BMutation and artificial selection
  • CBinary fission and natural selection
  • DBinary fission and artificial selection


Some antibiotics have the ability to kill certain pathogens.

Which type of pathogen is killed by penicillin?

  • ABacteria
  • BFungi
  • CProtoctista
  • DViruses

Penicillin is a biological product.

Which type of organism makes penicillin?

  • APlants
  • BBacteria
  • CFungi
  • DProtoctista


The figure shows the classes of antibiotics available to treat the bacterium Neisseria gonorrhoeae, which causes the sexually transmitted infection gonorrhea.

Which class of antibiotics was used for the longest time before developing resistance?

  • APenicillins
  • BTetracyclines
  • CSpectinomycin
  • DMacrolides
  • ECephalosporins

Which class of antibiotics is definitely effective in treating an infection of gonorrhea today?

  • AMacrolides
  • BCephalosporins
  • CFluoroquinolones
  • DTetracyclines
  • ENone of them


The figure shows the action of antibiotic X on a bacterium.

Which antibiotic is X?

  • ATetracycline
  • BChloramphenicol
  • CCephalosporin
  • DA sulfonamide
  • EStreptomycin

Which chemical is damaged by the action of antibiotic X?

  • AProtein
  • BRNA
  • CPhospholipid
  • DMurein (peptidoglycan)
  • EDNA


The figure shows the structure of a Salmonella bacterium, a pathogen that causes food poisoning in humans.

Which part of the cell, shown in the diagram, is the target of the antibiotic tetracycline?

  • ACell wall
  • BRibosomes
  • CCell membrane
  • DNucleoid

Which cell process is inhibited by tetracycline in this bacterium?

  • AProtein synthesis
  • BCell wall synthesis
  • CDNA replication
  • DRespiration

This lesson includes 1 additional question for subscribers.

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