Worksheet: Types of Statistical Studies

In this worksheet, we will practice identifying the study types that can be used to collect sample information, like surveys, observational studies, and experiments.

Q1:

Which of the following statements is NOT true?

  • AWell-designed experiments allow cause and effect to be established.
  • BIn an experiment, the variables are controlled.
  • CObservational studies most often allow cause and effect to be established.
  • DIn an observational study, the variables are observed and recorded.
  • EIn an experiment, a treatment is performed on subjects to measure its effect.

Q2:

Is the following a survey, an observational study, or an experiment?

A company has developed nontoxic oil paints. To investigate whether this new, environment-friendly product has attracted new clients, client and sale data were analyzed.

  • AObservational study
  • BSurvey
  • CExperiment

Q3:

Is the following a survey, an observational study, or an experiment?

A company has developed nontoxic oil paints. To investigate whether the paint adhesion depends on the roughness of the surface to be painted, they produced different samples of different roughness levels, painted the surface, and evaluated the paint adhesion with a paint scrape adhesion test.

  • Aobservational study
  • Bsurvey
  • Cexperiment

Q4:

Is the following a survey, an observational study, or an experiment?

To investigate whether the curing effect of a given drug depends on gender, two randomly selected groups of boys and girls were given this drug while two other randomly selected groups of boys and girls were given a placebo.

  • Aexperiment
  • Bsurvey
  • Cobservational study

Q5:

Is the following a survey, an observational study, or an experiment?

To investigate whether the ability to memorize text depends on gender, two randomly selected groups of boys and girls were given the same text to memorize. After 15 min, they were asked to reproduce the text in writing and their productions were evaluated.

  • Asurvey
  • Bobservational study
  • Cexperiment

Q6:

Identify whether the following study is a survey, an observational study, or an experiment.

Specially designed multifocal contact lenses have been shown to reduce the progression of nearsightedness in children. To investigate whether the obtained results depend on the age at which nearsighted children start wearing the contact lenses, a group of opticians analyzed their patient databank in terms of the age children started wearing the contact lenses and the progression of their nearsightedness after five years compared with nearsighted children who wore only glasses.

  • AObservational study
  • BExperiment
  • CSurvey

Q7:

Upon asking a question in a survey, do you expect all responders to give the same answer?

  • Ayes
  • Bno

Q8:

Is the following a survey, an observational study, or an experiment?

A group of students wanted to find out what type of music their schoolmates listen to. They asked their fellow students at random during break time about the types of music they liked and recorded the answers.

  • Aexperiment
  • Bsurvey
  • Cobservational study

Q9:

Identify whether the following study is a survey, an observational study, or an experiment. To investigate the effect of playing sports on learning and whether this depends on gender, two randomly selected groups of boys and girls were asked about the amount of time they practice different sports and their academic results.

  • Asurvey
  • Bobservational study
  • Cexperiment

Q10:

There are about 15 million registered voters in a state, and the government wants to know what proportion of them intends to vote in the next general election. In a survey of 1,000 registered voters, 648 responded that they did intend to vote.

Which of the following is the population parameter?

  • AThe 648 surveyed voters who intend to vote
  • BThe proportion of the population that intend to vote in the next general election
  • CAbout 65%
  • DThe population size of 15 million
  • EThe sample size of 1,000

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