# Worksheet: Gibbs Energy under Nonstandard Conditions

In this worksheet, we will practice using equilibrium constants and reaction quotients to calculate Gibbs free energy changes at nonstandard conditions.

**Q1: **

During glycolysis, an important biochemical pathway responsible for the generation of energy within a cell, glucose-6-phosphate is converted to fructose-6-phosphate. The standard change in Gibbs free energy, , for this reaction at is 1.70 kJ/mol. This energy is measured at standard reactant and product concentrations of 1.00 M.

At equilibrium, . What is the value of to 3 significant figures at 298 K if the concentration of glucose-6-phosphate is 120 μM and the concentration of fructose-6-phosphate is 28.0 μM?

Calculate to 3 significant figures the concentration of glucose-6-phosphate at equilibrium if the ambient temperature is and the initial glucose concentration is 1.40 M.

**Q2: **

The standard change in Gibbs free energy, , for the evaporation of water at 298 K is 8.58 kJ/mol. This energy is measured under a standard vapor pressure of 1.00 bar.

At equilibrium, . What is the value of to 3 significant figures if the partial pressure of water at 298 K is 0.0110 bar?

Calculate to 3 significant figures the partial pressure of water at equilibrium when the ambient temperature is 298 K.

- A bar
- B bar
- C bar
- D bar
- E bar

**Q3: **

Antimony pentachloride decomposes at high temperature into antimony trichloride and chlorine.

An equilibrium mixture in a 5.000 L flask at contains 3.85 g antimony pentachloride, 9.14 g antimony trichloride, and 2.84 g chlorine.

By expressing the partial pressure of each gas as a fraction of the standard gas pressure of 1.000 bar, calculate to 3 significant figures the equilibrium constant for this reaction at .

By expressing the partial pressure of each gas as a fraction of the standard gas pressure of 1.000 bar, calculate to 3 significant figures the standard change in Gibbs free energy, , for this reaction at .

**Q4: **

A diatomic molecule dissociates into single atoms at high temperature.

At 975 K and a total equilibrium gas pressure of 1.00 bar, 32.4% of the diatomic molecules dissociate. By expressing the partial pressure of each gas as a fraction of the standard gas pressure of 1.00 bar, calculate to 3 significant figures the standard change in Gibbs free energy, , for this reaction at 975 K.

**Q5: **

Under certain conditions, gaseous ammonia can decompose into nitrogen and hydrogen gases: When the initial partial pressure of each gas is equal to the standard value of 1.00 atm and the temperature is fixed at 298 K, the change in Gibbs free energy for the reaction, , is 33.00 kJ/mol. Calculate, to 3 significant figures, the change in Gibbs free energy, , when a mixture containing 0.100 mol of each gas is heated to in a 5.00 L container.

**Q6: **

Consider a process in which 0.2 mol of liquid acetone is mixed with 0.8 mol of liquid chloroform at a temperature of and a pressure of 1 bar. Under these conditions, measurements show that the activity coefficients of the acetone and chloroform constituents of the mixture have the values 0.544 (for acetone) and 0.957 (for chloroform). Given this information, what would be the associated with the mixing process?

**Q7: **

Carbon dioxide decomposes at high temperature into carbon monoxide and oxygen:

The standard entropies and enthalpies of formation for the carbon dioxide and the decomposition products are shown in the table:

Material | Standard Molar Entropy (J/K⋅mol) | Standard Enthalpy of Formation (kJ/mol) |
---|---|---|

213.8 | ||

197.7 | ||

205.2 | 0.0 |

All thermodynamic parameters are measured at standard gas pressures of 1.000 bar.

The initial pressure of a sample of carbon dioxide at is 1.150 bar. Assuming the thermodynamic parameters do not vary with temperature, calculate, to 3 significant figures, the equilibrium partial pressure of oxygen in this sample at .

- A bar
- B bar
- C bar
- D bar
- E bar

By what factor does the equilibrium constant for this reaction change if and are expressed using standard gas pressures of 1.000 Pa?

- A
- B
- C
- D
- E1

The change in Gibbs free energy for the reaction under nonstandard conditions, , is calculated using values of and measured under standard conditions. Calculate, to 3 significant figures, the change in for the decomposition of carbon dioxide if values of and are expressed using standard gas pressures of 1.000 Pa.

When the standard change in Gibbs free energy, , for the decomposition of carbon dioxide is expressed per mole of carbon dioxide reacted, the equilibrium constant for the reaction is . Determine the new value of the equilibrium constant in terms of if is instead expressed per mole of oxygen produced.

- A
- B
- C
- D
- E

**Q8: **

Dinitrogen tetroxide decomposes reversibly to produce nitrogen dioxide.

The equilibrium constant for this reaction, , is 0.142 at . The standard pressure for all gases is 1.000 bar.

Calculate the standard change in Gibbs free energy, , for this reaction.

What is the value of the reaction quotient when the reactant and products are in their standard states?

Calculate the partial pressure of if the initial pressure of dinitrogen tetroxide at is Pa.

How do the reaction quotient, , and partial pressure of , , change if a mixture of dinitrogen tetroxide and nitrogen oxide in their standard states is allowed to reach equilibrium?

- A increases and decreases.
- BBoth and remain constant.
- C decreases and increases.
- DBoth and increase.
- EBoth and decrease.

**Q9: **

Calcium carbonate can exist in two distinctly different crystalline forms, called calcite and aragonite. The standard Gibbs free energy of formation for calcite at 298 K is , and the standard Gibbs free energy of formation for aragonite at 298 K is . Which crystalline form is the more thermodynamically stable at a temperature of 298 K and a pressure of 1 bar, and what would be the value of for the calcite aragonite transformation at 298 K?

- ACalcite is more stable;
- BCalcite is more stable;
- CAragonite is more stable;
- DAragonite is more stable;