Worksheet: Structure of the Nervous System

In this worksheet, we will practice describing the main structures of the nervous system, and relating their structure to their function.

Q1:

Neurons do not physically join together to pass on electrical impulses. Instead, there is a small gap between them. What is this gap called?

  • ASciatic
  • BSynapse
  • CNode of Ranvier
  • DJunction
  • ETerminal

Q2:

What cells in your body detect a change in your environment?

  • AMotor
  • BEffectors
  • CReceptors
  • DEndocrine
  • ERelay

Q3:

Which of the following best explains what happens at a synapse?

  • AWhen an impulse reaches the end of a dendrite, it releases the neurotransmitter into the gap, which is detected by the following axon.
  • BWhen an impulse reaches the end of an axon, it releases the electrical signal into the gap. This moves across and is detected by the next neuron. This neuron generates a new electrical impulse.
  • CWhen an impulse reaches the end of an axon, it releases the neurotransmitter into the gap. This diffuses across and is detected by the next neuron. This neuron generates a new electrical impulse.
  • DWhen an impulse reaches the end of a dendrite, it releases the neurotransmitter into the gap. This travels across the gap by osmosis and is detected by the next neuron. This neuron generates a new electrical impulse.
  • EImpulses are passed on by the connections in the membrane where two neurons meet.

Q4:

Transmission across synapses is unidirectional. What does this mean?

  • AIt can only flow in one direction.
  • BIt can flow in two directions.
  • CIt can move forward and backward.
  • DIt moves in circles around the synapse.
  • EIt has no set direction of travel.

Q5:

Which of the following best describes how nerves and neurons are related?

  • ABundles of hundreds or thousands of neurons make up a nerve.
  • BBundles of hundreds or thousands of nerves make up a neuron.

Q6:

Choose the best description for the function of a myelin sheath.

  • AA myelin sheath surrounds the dendrites and speeds up the transmission of chemical signals.
  • BA myelin sheath acts as an electrical insulator and speeds up the transmission of impulses along the axon.
  • CA myelin sheath acts as an electrical conductor and slows down the transmission of impulses along the axon.
  • DA myelin sheath acts as a chemical conductor and speeds up the transmission of impulses.
  • EA myelin sheath acts as an insulator to regulate the neuron’s temperature.

Q7:

Which of the following is the correct function of the sensory neurons?

  • ATo transmit electrical impulses from receptor cells to the central nervous system
  • BTo transmit electrical impulses from sensory neurons to motor neurons
  • CTo transmit electrical impulses from relay neurons to effectors
  • DTo coordinate responses such as movement
  • ETo receive information from the external environment

Q8:

Which of the following is the correct function of the relay neurons?

  • ATo transmit electrical impulses from sensory neurons to motor neurons
  • BTo receive information from the external environment
  • CTo transmit electrical impulses from receptor cells to the central nervous system
  • DTo coordinate responses such as movement
  • ETo transmit electrical impulses from relay neurons to effectors

Q9:

What is a stimulus?

  • AA coordinated response to a change in the environment
  • BMessages passed through the central nervous system
  • CA change in your external or internal environments
  • DThe structure that detects changes in the environment
  • EInformation transmitted by motor neurons

Q10:

Which of the following is the correct function of the motor neurons?

  • ATo transmit electrical impulses from relay neurons to effectors
  • BTo receive information from the external environment
  • CTo transmit electrical impulses from sensory neurons to motor neurons
  • DTo receive information from the internal environment
  • ETo transmit electrical impulses from receptor cells to the central nervous system

Q11:

The diagram given shows a sensory neuron. The red arrow shows the direction of travel of the nervous impulse.

What structure is represented by label 1?

  • AMyelin sheath
  • BAxon
  • CNucleus
  • DCell body
  • EDendrite

What structure is represented by label 2?

  • ACell body
  • BAxon
  • CDendrite
  • DNucleus
  • EAxon terminals

Q12:

The diagram given shows a motor neuron. What structure is represented by label 1?

  • AAxon terminals
  • BCell body
  • CMyelin sheath
  • DDendrite
  • EAxon

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