Worksheet: Effects of Exercise

In this worksheet, we will practice describing the effect of exercise on the body, and outlining practical experiments to investigate this.

Q1:

When a person exercises, the muscle cells in their body require a large amount of energy. What biological process happens in the cells to provide this energy?

  • ATranslocation
  • BRespiration
  • CMitosis
  • DVentilation
  • EPhotosynthesis

Q2:

The graph provided shows the relationship between heart rate and exercise.

Which of the following conclusions about the graph is correct?

  • AThe average heart rate is higher when a person is exercising moderately than when a person is exercising intensely.
  • BThe average heart rate is lower when a person is exercising intensely than when a person is exercising lightly.
  • CThe average heart rate is lower when a person is recovering from intense exercise than when a person is at rest.
  • DThe average heart rate is higher when a person is exercising intensely than when a person is exercising lightly.

Why do we see this trend?

  • AThe heart beats at the same rate from rest to intense exercise to ensure blood flow remains constant.
  • BDuring intense exercise, the heart beats faster to supply the brain with more blood.
  • CDuring intense exercise, the heart beats faster to supply the muscles with more oxygen and glucose.
  • DDuring intense exercise, the heart beats slower to allow the exchange of oxygen into muscle cells.

Q3:

Practical activities can be used to investigate the effect of fitness on heart rate. How can heart rate be easily measured?

  • ABy measuring the volume of oxygen taken in
  • BBy measuring the volume of blood that leaves the heart
  • CBy taking someone’s pulse
  • DBy recording the number of breaths per minute

Q4:

A student wants to investigate how doing different numbers of push-ups affects the heart rate of different people. They ask for 15 volunteers to collect results from.

What will the control variable for this experiment be?

  • AThe number of push-ups
  • BThe type of exercise
  • CThe mass of the volunteers
  • DThe time taken to do the push-ups

Which of the following is a method the student can use to increase the validity of their results?

  • AUse a group of 15 people of a wider age range
  • BUse a heart rate monitor rather than take the volunteer’s pulse
  • CRepeat the experiment for a longer period of time
  • DRepeat the experiment with sit-ups

Q5:

A group of students are investigating the effect of exercise on heart rate. Their method is as follows:

  1. Select a sample of volunteers.
  2. Take each volunteer’s resting heart rate.
  3. The volunteers jog on the spot for 1 minute.
  4. Take the volunteers’ heart rates immediately after the exercise.
  5. The volunteers sprint for 20 seconds.
  6. Take the volunteers’ heart rates immediately after the exercise.

How could the students improve the accuracy of their results?

  • ABy asking the volunteers to jog for a longer period
  • BBy making sure only one variable is changed
  • CBy repeating the experiment with different groups of students
  • DBy repeating the experiment three times and calculating average heart rates

How could the students extend their experiment to investigate recovery times?

  • ABy recording how long it takes for breathing rates to slow down
  • BBy timing how long it takes for the volunteers’ heart rates to return to resting
  • CBy including another period of exercise after the sprinting
  • DBy testing the volunteers’ blood for the presence of lactic acid

Q6:

What scientific term is given to the volume of oxygen needed after exercising to break down lactic acid?

  • AAerobic deficit
  • BOxygen repayment
  • COxygen deficiency
  • DAerobic debt
  • EOxygen debt

Q7:

Stores of glucose can be used to provide energy for intense exercise. What insoluble compound stored in the liver can be broken down to release glucose?

  • ALactic acid
  • BGlycogen
  • CStarch
  • DInsulin
  • EGlucagon

Q8:

Three students were asked to jog on the spot for 3 minutes. During this time, their heart rates were continuously monitored, and the maximum heart rates were recorded.

The exercise was repeated three times for each student, with rests in between. The results are provided in the table.

Maximum Heart Rate (bpm)
Student123Average
X758076
Y818487
Z858790

Calculate the average heart rate for student Z to the nearest whole number.

Q9:

During intense exercise, muscle cells may require more oxygen for cellular respiration than can be supplied to them. If so, what type of respiration will occur?

  • AAerobic
  • BEthanol fermentation
  • CAnaerobic

Q10:

Which of the following correctly describes the relationship between the rate of cellular respiration and exercise?

  • ADuring periods of exercise and rest, the rate of cellular respiration remains the same.
  • BDuring periods of exercise, the rate of cellular respiration decreases.
  • CDuring periods of exercise, the rate of cellular respiration increases.
  • DThere is no link between the length of periods of exercise and the rate of respiration.

Q11:

The graph provided shows the relationship between the type of exercise and breathing rate.

Why does breathing rate change with the type of exercise?

  • ABreathing rate decreases with the intensity of exercise to remove carbon dioxide from the muscles.
  • BBreathing rate increases with the intensity of exercise to supply the muscles with more glucose.
  • CBreathing rate increases with the intensity of exercise to supply the muscles with more carbon dioxide.
  • DBreathing rate increases with the intensity of exercise to supply the muscles with more oxygen.

Q12:

What is the product of anaerobic respiration in human body cells?

  • ACarbon dioxide
  • BLactic acid
  • CEthanol
  • DWater

Q13:

What type of blood vessels allow oxygen and glucose in the blood to diffuse into body cells?

  • AVeins
  • BCapillaries
  • CArteries

Q14:

What waste product produced during aerobic respiration must be removed from the body via breathing?

  • ACarbon monoxide
  • BUrea
  • CCarbon dioxide
  • DAmmonia
  • EOxygen

Q15:

Complete the following sentences with increases, decreases, or stays the same.

As the intensity of exercise increases, the heart rate .

  • Aincreases
  • Bdecreases
  • Cstays the same

As the intensity of exercise increases, the breathing rate .

  • Adecreases
  • Bincreases
  • Cstays the same

As the intensity of exercise decreases, the rate of cellular respiration .

  • Adecreases
  • Bincreases
  • Cstays the same

Q16:

In eukaryotes, what cellular organelle is the main site of aerobic respiration?

  • AMitochondria
  • BChloroplast
  • CCell membrane
  • DNucleus
  • EGolgi apparatus

Q17:

Which of the following correctly describes the link between the intensity of exercise and a person’s requirement for oxygen and glucose?

  • AAs the intensity of exercise increases, a person will require more oxygen and glucose.
  • BAs the intensity of exercise increases, a person will require less oxygen and glucose.
  • CAs the intensity of exercise decreases, a person will require more oxygen and less glucose.
  • DThere is no correlation between the intensity of exercise and the amount of oxygen and glucose required.

Q18:

After cellular respiration, blood is taken from the muscles to the lungs. Which of the following describes how the composition of the blood changes in the lungs?

  • ACarbon dioxide diffuses out of the blood.
  • BGlucose diffuses out of the blood.
  • CLactic acid diffuses out of the blood.
  • DOxygen diffuses out of the blood.

Q19:

The femoral artery is a large artery located in the thigh and acts as the main blood supply for the muscles in the leg. The graph provided shows how oxygen concentration in the femoral artery changes as heart rate increases.

Which of the following statements correctly links exercise intensity to oxygen concentration in the femoral artery?

  • AAs the intensity of exercise increases, oxygen concentration in the femoral artery increases exponentially.
  • BAs the intensity of exercise decreases, oxygen concentration in the femoral artery increases slightly.
  • CAs the intensity of exercise increases, oxygen concentration in the femoral artery increases slightly.
  • DThere is no correlation between the intensity of exercise and oxygen concentration in the femoral artery.

Which of the following statements best explains the trend shown?

  • AAs the intensity of exercise increases, less oxygen is taken in to supply the muscle cells, which have decreased rates of cellular respiration.
  • BAs the intensity of exercise increases, more oxygen is taken in to break down food and release energy.
  • CAs the intensity of exercise increases, more oxygen is taken in to supply the muscle cells, which have increased rates of cellular respiration.
  • DAs the intensity of exercise increases, the femoral artery loses more oxygen to the surrounding environment, which needs to be replaced.

Q20:

The vena cava returns blood from the body to the heart. The pulmonary artery then carries blood from the heart to the lungs. The graph provided shows the general relationship between heart rate and the amount of oxygen available in the pulmonary artery.

Which of the following statements correctly links exercise intensity to oxygen concentration in the pulmonary artery?

  • AAs exercise intensity increases, oxygen in the artery increases.
  • BAs exercise intensity increases, oxygen in the artery decreases.
  • CThere is no link between exercise intensity and oxygen concentration in the artery.

Which of the following correctly explains the trend shown?

  • AAs exercise intensity decreases, less oxygen is transported in the pulmonary artery because cellular respiration in muscle cells has decreased.
  • BAs exercise intensity increases, less oxygen is transported in the pulmonary artery because it has been removed by lactic acid.
  • CAs exercise intensity increases, less oxygen is available in the pulmonary artery because cellular respiration in muscle cells has increased.
  • DAs exercise intensity increases, more oxygen is transported in the pulmonary artery because active cells in the body require it.

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