Worksheet: Cancer

In this worksheet we will practice describing how cancer forms, and explaining some risk factors for cancer.

Q1:

There are certain risk factors associated with cancer. What is a risk factor?

  • AA painful side effect from a treatment for a disease
  • BA lifestyle choice that decreases the chance of a person developing a certain disease
  • CA disease that cannot be recovered from
  • DSomething that increases a person’s likelihood of developing a disease
  • ESomething that means a person will definitely develop a disease

Q2:

The graph provided shows the relationship between years of smoking and the relative risk of someone developing lung cancer.

Which of the following best describes the trend shown in the graph?

  • AAs the years of smoking decrease, the relative risk of developing lung cancer increases.
  • BAs the years of smoking increase, the relative risk of developing lung cancer decreases.
  • CAs the years of smoking increase, the relative risk of developing lung cancer increases.
  • DThere is no correlation between the years of smoking and the relative risk of developing lung cancer.

Which of the following best explains the trend shown in the graph?

  • AFewer years of smoking means more exposure to carcinogens, increasing the risk of cancer.
  • BMore years of smoking means less exposure to carcinogens, decreasing the risk of cancer.
  • CThere is no reason that an increase in the years of smoking would increase the risk of cancer.
  • DMore years of smoking means more exposure to carcinogens, increasing the risk of cancer.

Q3:

Which of the following best explains how tumors are formed?

  • AThe subcellular structures change and cannot be repaired.
  • BCells divide relatively quickly.
  • CCells grow and divide out of control.
  • DCells grow slower than normal.
  • ECells become unspecialized and undifferentiated.

Q4:

What are the two main ways cancer is currently treated?

  • ARadiotherapy and X-ray therapy
  • BX-ray therapy and gamma knife surgery
  • CChemotherapy and stem cells
  • DRadiotherapy and chemotherapy
  • EOrgan transplants and chemical therapy

Q5:

What is a carcinogen?

  • AA substance that is toxic to cancer cells
  • BA substance that will definitely cause cancer
  • CA substance that divides to form cancer cells
  • DA substance that will slow the growth of cancer cells
  • EA substance that can cause cancer

Q6:

It is an abnormal growth of cells that is transported around the body. What type of tumor is being described?

  • ABenign
  • BMalignant

Q7:

Some cancers have genetic risk factors. What does this mean?

  • APeople may inherit genes that will prevent them from developing these cancers.
  • BPeople are less likely to develop these cancers if their parents or grandparents had them.
  • CThese cancers will not be caused by a change in the DNA.
  • DPeople may inherit genes that make them more likely to develop these cancers.

Q8:

Uncontrolled cell division can be triggered by mutations. What is a mutation?

  • AA difference in the physical appearance of an organism
  • BA cell that is no longer able to replicate
  • CA change in the DNA base sequence
  • DA change in the sugar–phosphate backbone
  • EA change in the mitochondria of a cell

Q9:

Which of the following correctly describes how cancer can be linked to the human papillomavirus?

  • AThere is no link between cancer and HPV.
  • BInfection with HPV can lead to cervical cancer.
  • CInfection with cervical cancer can lead to the development of HPV.

Q10:

Which of the following best explains the link between exposure to radiation and the risk of a person developing cancer?

  • AA decrease in exposure to radiation increases the chance of mutations and therefore increases the risk of cancer.
  • BAn increase in exposure to radiation increases the chance of mutations and therefore increases the risk of cancer.
  • CThere is no link between exposure to radiation and the risk of developing cancer.
  • DAn increase in exposure to radiation decreases the chance of mutations and therefore decreases the risk of cancer.

Q11:

It is an abnormal growth of cells that is contained in one place. What type of tumor is being described?

  • AMalignant
  • BBenign

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