Worksheet: Rocks and Minerals

In this worksheet, we will practice classifying rocks according to to their properties and how they were formed.


The photograph shows a basalt rock formation in Vik, Iceland.

Basalt is an igneous rock. What does the presence of this rock formation tell us about the history of this part of Earth?

Basalt rock formations-72 ppi
  • AThere was once a desert in Iceland.
  • BThe area was once flooded by a tsunami.
  • CThere was a volcanic eruption in Iceland.
  • DThere was an earthquake in Iceland.


The bricks used to build this wall are made of sandstone.

What type of rock is sandstone?

Sandstone wall-72 ppi
  • AMetamorphic
  • BIgneous
  • CSedimentary


The Wave is a rock formation in Arizona. It was formed from shifting sands from the desert during the Jurassic period and was later eroded by water and wind.

The Wave in the Vermilion Cliffs National Monument-72 ppi

What type of rock is the Wave made out of?

  • AChalk
  • BSandstone
  • CMarble
  • DGranite


The image shows samples of igneous rock.

Which of the statements given describes how igneous rock is formed?

Collection of Igneous rock specimens-72 ppi
  • AIgneous rock is formed from the broken remains of other rocks that become joined together.
  • BIgneous rock is formed when hot liquid magma from inside the earth cools and becomes solid.
  • CIgneous rock is formed from other rocks that are changed because of heat or pressure.


Minerals are made of elements. An element is a substance that cannot be broken down into any other substance.

We can use the properties of minerals to help tell them apart. These properties include color, luster, streak, hardness, and shape.

Collection of various minerals-72 ppi

What does luster mean?

  • AHow well a mineral resists scratching
  • BThe way that a mineral reflects light
  • CThe color of a mineral’s surface
  • DThe number of crystals a mineral has


The table shows the properties of different rocks.

Name of Rock Appearance Texture
Chalk Bright white Quite soft. Can be crushed to make small white grains or powder.
Marble Comes in many different colors. May have lines (veins) running through it Hard
Slate Blue-gray Thin layers. Feel hard but can easily be snapped
Granite Contains different coloured crystals Very hard and strong

Use the table to identify the rock shown.

Slate plate-72 ppi
  • AChalk
  • BGranite
  • CMarble
  • DSlate

Name the rock shown in the image.

Collection natural rock-72 ppi
  • ASlate
  • BMarble
  • CChalk
  • DGranite


The rock shown in the photograph is called Obsidian. What type of rock is obsidian?

Real obsidian-72 ppi
  • AIgneous
  • BA fossil
  • CMetamorphic
  • DSedimentary

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