# Lesson Worksheet: Investigating Ecosystems Biology

In this worksheet, we will practice recalling how to sample ecosystems to estimate population sizes and investigate the distribution and abundance of organisms in their environment.

Q1:

Which of the following techniques will ensure that samples with a quadrat are taken randomly? Select all that apply.

• AThe area to be sampled is separated into grids, and the person sampling starts at the first grid and samples all until they reach the end.
• BThe area to be sampled is separated into numbered grids, and a random number generator is used to choose sample areas.
• CThe person sampling identifies the areas of the field where the species being sampled shows the most abundance, and then they place the quadrat there.

Q2:

A student wants to investigate how the abundance of daisies changes from a shaded area to an unshaded one. Which method of sampling should they use?

• ARandom sampling
• BLine transect sampling

Q3:

Which of the following best defines random sampling?

• ARandom sampling is a method of randomly selecting organisms to investigate in an area.
• BRandom sampling is a method of preselecting the samples to ensure only productive areas are chosen.
• CRandom sampling is a method of selecting samples by chance, and every sample has an equal probability of being chosen.
• DRandom sampling is a method of selecting samples to ensure the best results.

Q4:

A general method for using a line transect is outlined below, with some key words removed:

1. Lay a tape measure along the ground.
2. Place X at the first measurement point.
3. Record the Y of your selected organism.
4. Repeat at Z intervals.

Which of the following words would correctly replace X?

• BA sample
• CA tape measure
• DA student

Which of the following words would correctly replace Y?

• AType
• BColor
• CAbundance
• DAppearance

Which of the following words would correctly replace Z?

• AA few
• BRandom
• CRegular
• DSignificant

Q5:

A student wants to estimate the general abundance of dandelions in a large field. What method of sampling should they use?

• ALine transect sampling
• BRandom sampling

Q6:

The graph provided shows the effect of shade on the number of different plant species in a given area. What is the trend shown by these results?

• AThe more shaded an area is, the more plant species can grow in it.
• BThe less shaded an area is, the more plant species can grow in it.
• CThere is no correlation between shade and number of plant species.

Q7:

Quadrats can be used to estimate the numbers of slow-moving animals. Example results for an investigation into the abundance of slugs in a field are provided in the table.

 Sample Number of Slugs 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 4 3 2 4 3 6 1 2 1 3

Q8:

A quadrat can be used to estimate the distribution of species in an area. What is meant by distribution?

• ADistribution is how far organisms have to travel to find mates.
• BDistribution is where a species is found within a given area or ecosystem.
• CDistribution is how much space is available between different species in an ecosystem.
• DDistribution is how common a particular species is in a given area or ecosystem.

Q9:

A quadrat can be used to estimate the abundance of a species in a given area. What is meant by abundance?

• AAbundance is how common a particular species is in a given area or ecosystem.
• BAbundance is how well adapted a particular species is for a given area or ecosystem.
• CAbundance is how frequently an organism visits a particular area or ecosystem.
• DAbundance is where a species is found within a given area or ecosystem.

Q10:

A student used a quadrat to sample how many flowers were present in an area of a school field. The student then drew the results, which are provided here. What is the abundance of flowers present in this quadrat?