Worksheet: Prevention of Rusting
In this worksheet, we will practice describing methods for the prevention of rusting in iron and identifying metals less susceptible to oxide formation.
The Statue of Liberty in New York City contains a copper skin wrapped around iron supports. Why is this design problematic?
- ACopper is less reactive than iron, so it accelerates rusting of the iron support.
- BCopper cannot form an alloy with iron, so the iron support is exposed to rusting.
- CCopper develops a thick oxide layer, preventing it from acting as a sacrificial coating for the iron support.
- DCopper binds water more strongly than iron, so it accelerates rusting of the iron support.
- ECopper has a low tensile strength so it cracks easily, exposing the iron support to rusting.
Which of the following is not a method for lowering the rate of rusting?
Vehicle components are sometimes made of aluminum instead of steel in order to reduce the risk of oxidation.
Why is aluminum less susceptible than steel to oxidation?
- AAluminum binds water less strongly than steel.
- BAluminum is less reactive than steel.
- CAluminum forms cracks less easily than steel.
- DAluminum is protected by an unreactive oxide layer.
- EAluminum is protected by an unreactive carbonate layer.
Which of the following is another advantage of using aluminum instead of steel in vehicle components?
- AAluminum is less expensive than steel.
- BAluminum is stronger than steel, so it deforms less easily.
- CAluminum is less dense than steel.
- DAluminum is harder than steel, so it scratches less easily.
- EAluminum has a higher melting point than steel.
Iron may be protected from rusting by supplying the metal with an electric current. Why does this method lower the risk of rusting?
- AThe supply of electrons promotes the formation of a protective surface oxide layer.
- BThe supply of electrons converts iron ions back to metallic iron.
- CThe supply of electrons causes the iron surface to become charged, binding oxygen molecules less strongly.
- DThe supply of electrons converts oxygen to water, preventing it from acting as an oxidant.
- EThe supply of electrons causes the iron surface to become charged, binding protective surface oxides more strongly.
An iron surface is protected from rusting by coating it with a sacrificial metal from a salt solution. Which process is responsible for the formation of the protective layer?
- AReduction of dissolved metal ions by an electric current
- BReaction of dissolved metal ions with surface iron oxides
- CReaction of dissolved metal ions with the iron surface
- DReaction of dissolved metal ions with atmospheric oxygen
- EOxidation of dissolved metal ions by an electric current
Which of the following is not a useful property in sacrificial metal coatings for steel objects?
- AHigh melting point
- BLow reactivity
- CHigh tensile strength
- DLow density
- EHigh hydrophobicity
What is the main reason for preferring oil over plastic as a protective coating for a steel bicycle chain?
- AOil is less likely to react with the steel chain.
- BOil can spread to maintain a uniform coating during movement of the chain.
- COil is less heavy than plastic so is less likely to impede the chain movement.
- DThe oil layer reduces oxidation by acting as a sacrificial coating.
- EOil is less expensive than a plastic coating.
A steel vehicle is protected from rusting by coating the exposed surface with a second metal.
What name is given to this process?
What name is given to the protective metal layer?
- ASacrificial anode
- BPassivating layer
- DElectrical insulation
- ESacrificial cathode
Which of the following is the best definition of galvanic corrosion?
- AOxidation of a metal accelerated by alloying
- BReduction of a metal accelerated by the presence of a less reactive metal
- COxidation of a metal accelerated by the presence of a more reactive metal
- DReduction of a metal accelerated by alloying
- EOxidation of a metal accelerated by the presence of a less reactive metal
Which of the following is the best definition of passivation?
- AProtection of a metal surface by an unreactive oil layer
- BProtection of a metal surface by an electrical current
- CProtection of a metal surface by an unreactive plastic layer
- DProtection of a metal surface by an unreactive oxide layer
- EProtection of a metal surface by a sacrificial material
Which term best describes the protective material used in cathodic protection?
- BSacrificial cathode
- CPassivating layer
- DSacrificial anode
- EHydrophobic layer
Which of the following is not a useful property in protective oil coatings for moving steel components?
- ALow melting point
- BLow volatility
- CHigh hydrophobicity
- DLow reactivity
- EHigh viscosity
Which of the following is not a useful property in protective plastic coatings for moving steel components?
- AHigh hydrophobicity
- BLow melting point
- CLow weight
- DHigh elasticity
- EHigh yield point
Which of the following metals could be used as a sacrificial coating on iron to prevent rust formation?
Which of the following could not be used as a sacrificial metal to prevent corrosion of tin?
An electrochemical cell is constructed by connecting plates of iron and copper to a voltmeter and immersing the plates in separate salt solutions linked via a salt bridge. Ferroxyl indicator is added to each of the two solutions. Which of the following images best illustrates the colors of the solutions at the end of this experiment? Note that the salt bridges are omitted for clarity.
A steel can is protected by coating it with a layer of tin. Part of the steel surface is exposed through a scratch in the tin layer, as shown. How does the rate of rusting of the steel exposed by the scratch compare with that of uncoated steel?
- AIron in the steel reacts with tin to form a new protective layer, so no steel is exposed.
- BThe exposed steel rusts but more slowly than uncoated steel.
- CThe exposed steel does not rust, unlike uncoated steel.
- DThe exposed steel rusts at the same rate as uncoated steel.
- EThe exposed steel rusts more rapidly than uncoated steel.
The diagram illustrates an iron plate that has been protected from rusting by galvanization of the exposed surface.
Identify the material usually present in the protective coating .
When intact, how does the coating protect the iron plate?
- AThe coating traps rust to prevent it from flaking away.
- BThe coating reacts with rust to convert it back to metallic iron.
- CThe coating reacts with oxygen to prevent it from reaching the iron plate.
- DThe coating binds water to prevent it from reaching the iron plate.
- EThe coating physically prevents oxygen and water from reaching the iron plate.
If the coating is scratched, how does it continue to protect the iron plate?
- AThe coating reacts with the exposed iron to form a rust-resistant alloy.
- BThe coating cannot protect the iron plate if scratched.
- CThe coating flows to fill the scratch.
- DThe coating absorbs water and expands to fill the scratch.
- EThe coating is oxidized instead of the iron plate.
A steel oil pipeline is protected via an electrical connection to a buried block of sacrificial metal. Which diagram correctly illustrates the composition of the sacrificial metal and the direction of the electrical current?
Based on their positions on the reactivity series, and their densities, which of the following metals would produce the lightest sacrificial coating for a lead object?
Three wires of different metals are wrapped around separate iron nails of equal mass, as shown. A fourth iron nail is left exposed. After one week, the wires are removed and the nails are weighed. Place the nails in order of increasing mass when the weighing takes place.