Worksheet: Specialized Plant Structures

In this worksheet, we will practice describing the structure and function of specialized plant structures.

Q1:

The spongy mesophyll cells in the leaf are separated by many air spaces. How does this aid key biological processes in the plant?

  • AIt allows easy diffusion of gases for respiration and photosynthesis.
  • BIt allows substances like water and minerals to be transported around the leaf to be used in respiration and photosynthesis.
  • CIt allows sunlight to penetrate down to the palisade layer to increase the rate of photosynthesis.
  • DIt increases the size of the leaf, which allows the maximum amount of sunlight to be captured for photosynthesis.

Q2:

In plant leaves, what is the primary function of waxy cuticles?

  • AThey prevent excessive water loss by evaporation from the leaf.
  • BThey provide a surface area for reactions to take place.
  • CThey capture the sunlight required for photosynthesis.
  • DThey prevent the loss of minerals by diffusion from the plant.

Q3:

Palisade cells near the top of the leaf contain many chloroplasts. Which of the following best explains why?

  • APalisade cells have many chloroplasts to allow maximum diffusion of gases in and out of the leaf.
  • BPalisade cells have many chloroplasts to capture the sunlight needed for photosynthesis.
  • CPalisade cells have many chloroplasts to expand the cell and increase the surface area available for water uptake.
  • DPalisade cells have many chloroplasts to capture the sunlight needed for respiration.

Q4:

What substance does the phloem primarily transport through the plant?

  • AMinerals
  • BLignin
  • CCarbon dioxide
  • DDissolved sucrose

Q5:

What is the primary function of the companion cells in the phloem?

  • AProviding chloroplasts for a maximum rate of photosynthesis to take place
  • BMaximizing the available surface area for the diffusion of gases
  • CConnecting the xylem and the phloem for the exchange of substances
  • DProviding energy for the transport of substances in the phloem

Q6:

Meristem cells are found in the tips of plant roots and shoots. Which of the following best describes meristem cells?

  • AMeristem cells slowly divide and replace some cells in the plant.
  • BMeristem cells can rapidly divide and specialize into all types of plant cell.
  • CMeristem cells are specialized in carrying out photosynthesis.
  • DMeristem cells are specialized cells that allow the transport of substances across membranes.

Q7:

In plants, what is the main process root hair cells use to take in water from the soil?

  • AActive transport
  • BOsmosis
  • CPhotosynthesis
  • DTranslocation

Q8:

Plants need to take in mineral ions from the soil. What is the main process they use to do this called?

  • AActive transport
  • BOsmosis
  • CDiffusion
  • DTranspiration

Q9:

The diagram provided shows the basic structure of a plant root hair cell.

Which of the following are adaptations of a root hair cell?

  • AThey have a large surface area to take in large amounts of water from the soil.
  • BThey are able to differentiate into any specialized cell.
  • CThey are covered in a waterproof coating to prevent the evaporation of water.
  • DThey have many air spaces in between the cells to allow diffusion of gases.

Root hair cells do not contain chloroplasts. Which of the following best explains why?

  • AThey have too many mitochondria, so there is no space for chloroplasts.
  • BNo oxygen reaches them, so they cannot carry out respiration.
  • CNo light reaches them, so they cannot carry out photosynthesis.
  • DThey are brown rather than green, so they do not need the green pigment chlorophyll.

Q10:

The diagram provided shows the basic outline of the xylem vessels in plants.

Along with cellulose, what polymer is contained in the cell walls to strengthen the xylem vessel?

  • AChitin
  • BKeratin
  • CPeptidoglycan
  • DLignin

Which of the following best describes the structure of the xylem?

  • AThe xylem is a long continuous tube of living cells.
  • BThe xylem is a long continuous tube of dead cells.
  • CThe xylem is comprised of many living and dead cells that form a solid tube.
  • DThe xylem is comprised of many living cells with pores in the cell wall.

Q11:

The diagram provided shows the basic structure of phloem vessels found in plants.

What is the structure represented by label 1?

  • APalisade cell
  • BCompanion cell
  • CSieve-tube element
  • DSieve plate

What is the structure represented by label 2?

  • APalisade cell
  • BSieve-tube element
  • CCompanion cell
  • DSieve plate

What is the structure represented by label 3?

  • ACompanion cell
  • BSieve plate
  • CSieve-tube element
  • DPalisade cell

Q12:

The diagram provided shows a basic outline of the cross section of a leaf.

What structure on the top of the leaf is represented by label 1?

  • ASpongy mesophyll layer
  • BStomata
  • CWaxy cuticle
  • DPalisade layer

What cells are represented by label 2?

  • APalisade
  • BSpongy mesophyll
  • CGuard
  • DEpidermal

What tissue is represented by label 3?

  • APalisade mesophyll
  • BWaxy
  • CSpongy mesophyll
  • DEpidermal

What cells are represented by label 4?

  • AStoma
  • BPalisade
  • CGuard
  • DMesophyll

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