Lesson Worksheet: Specialized Plant Structures Biology
In this worksheet, we will practice describing the structure and function of specialized plant structures.
In plant leaves, what is the primary function of waxy cuticles?
- AThey prevent excessive water loss by evaporation from the leaf.
- BThey provide a surface area for reactions to take place.
- CThey capture the sunlight required for photosynthesis.
- DThey prevent the loss of minerals by diffusion from the plant.
The spongy mesophyll cells in the leaf are separated by many air spaces. How does this aid key biological processes in the plant?
- AIt allows easy diffusion of gases for respiration and photosynthesis.
- BIt allows substances like water and minerals to be transported around the leaf to be used in respiration and photosynthesis.
- CIt allows sunlight to penetrate down to the palisade layer to increase the rate of photosynthesis.
- DIt increases the size of the leaf, which allows the maximum amount of sunlight to be captured for photosynthesis.
Palisade cells near the top of the leaf contain many chloroplasts. Which of the following best explains why?
- APalisade cells have many chloroplasts to allow maximum diffusion of gases in and out of the leaf.
- BPalisade cells have many chloroplasts to capture the sunlight needed for photosynthesis.
- CPalisade cells have many chloroplasts to expand the cell and increase the surface area available for water uptake.
- DPalisade cells have many chloroplasts to capture the sunlight needed for respiration.
What is the primary function of the companion cells in the phloem?
- AProviding chloroplasts for a maximum rate of photosynthesis to take place
- BMaximizing the available surface area for the diffusion of gases
- CConnecting the xylem and the phloem for the exchange of substances
- DProviding energy for the transport of substances in the phloem
What substance does the phloem primarily transport through the plant?
- CCarbon dioxide
- DDissolved sucrose
Meristem cells are found in the tips of plant roots and shoots. Which of the following best describes meristem cells?
- AMeristem cells slowly divide and replace some cells in the plant.
- BMeristem cells can rapidly divide and specialize into all types of plant cell.
- CMeristem cells are specialized in carrying out photosynthesis.
- DMeristem cells are specialized cells that allow the transport of substances across membranes.
In plants, what is the main process root hair cells use to take in water from the soil?
- AActive transport
Plants need to take in mineral ions from the soil, which can be found in lower concentration in the soil than that inside the root hair cell. What is the main process plants use to absorb such minerals?
- AActive transport
The diagram provided shows the basic structure of a plant root hair cell.
Which of the following are adaptations of a root hair cell?
- AThey have a large surface area to take in large amounts of water from the soil.
- BThey are able to differentiate into any specialized cell.
- CThey are covered in a waterproof coating to prevent the evaporation of water.
- DThey have many air spaces in between the cells to allow diffusion of gases.
Root hair cells do not contain chloroplasts. Which of the following best explains why?
- AThey have too many mitochondria, so there is no space for chloroplasts.
- BNo oxygen reaches them, so they cannot carry out respiration.
- CNo light reaches them, so they cannot carry out photosynthesis.
- DThey are brown rather than green, so they do not need the green pigment chlorophyll.
The diagram provided shows the basic outline of the xylem vessels in plants.
Along with cellulose, what polymer is contained in the cell walls to strengthen the xylem vessel?
Which of the following best describes the structure of the xylem?
- AThe xylem is a long continuous tube of living cells.
- BThe xylem is a long continuous tube of dead cells.
- CThe xylem is comprised of many living and dead cells that form a solid tube.
- DThe xylem is comprised of many living cells with pores in the cell wall.