When an iron nail rusts, it reacts with oxygen and water in the air. What happens to the total mass of the nail?
Rusting of iron is an example of an oxidation reaction. The rate of rusting of iron in water varies with increasing salt concentration.
Which particles are removed from a metal during an oxidation reaction?
How and why does the rate of rusting of iron in water vary with increasing salt concentration?
Which term best describes the role of the salt solution in the rusting process?
Give a balanced chemical formula for the formation of the major iron oxide compound in rust.
Two moles of iron react with one mole of oxygen to produce a colored compound of uniform composition. All of the iron reacts and there are no other products.
What is the formula of the compound produced?
What color is the compound produced?
The compound reacts with further oxygen to form a more stable material. What color is the new material?
Two sealed iron tanks, and , contain identical volumes of water at room temperature. Tank contains water that was boiled before being placed in the tank, while the water in tank was not boiled. How and why does the rate of rusting differ between the two tanks?
Acid rain is produced when sulfur dioxide in the atmosphere reacts with water to form sulfuric acid. Increasing the acid concentration in rain causes an exposed iron surface to rust more quickly. Which of the following is not a mechanism by which dissolved acid accelerates rusting?
When rust is formed on the surface of iron, it does not prevent further oxidation of the remaining metal. What is the main reason that rust does not behave as a protective coating?
The density of iron is 7.87 g/cm3. When iron is oxidized during rusting, the density decreases to 5.24 g/cm3. By contrast, the density of aluminum is 2.70 g/cm3 and this value increases to 3.99 g/cm3 when the metal is completely oxidized.
What is the percentage change in volume when iron is converted completely to rust? Assume that no water is present at the end of the reaction.
What is the percentage change in volume when aluminum is completely oxidized?
Changes in volume during oxidation affect the amount of cracking caused by oxidation. How do the volume changes of iron and aluminum differ, and what effect does this difference have on the amount of cracking?
Vehicles on major roads are found to rust much more rapidly in cold wet countries when the temperature is below freezing. Which factor is most directly responsible for this effect?
What is the name of the most abundant oxide produced by the rusting of iron?
In which of the following environments would rusting of a steel plate occur most rapidly?
Iron(III) hydroxide is a key product of rusting in humid conditions. This solid material forms from dissolved ions, which in turn are formed from solid iron. The reactions involve water, hydrogen ions , and oxygen molecules. Each step of the reaction can be represented using a net ionic equation, which is balanced based on the total charge on the two sides of the equation being equal..
Including state symbols, give a balanced net ionic equation for the formation of ions from metallic iron and dissolved hydrogen ions and oxygen molecules.
Including state symbols, give a balanced net ionic equation for the formation of iron(III) hydroxide from ions and water molecules.
How many hydrogen ions are consumed in total when an atom of iron is converted to iron(III) hydroxide?
Iron(III) hydroxide can be dehydrated to produce a material containing no hydrogen atoms. How many water molecules are removed for every atom of iron in the material?
Why does rusting affect iron more than aluminum?
A thin 25.0 kg sheet of iron rusts in wet air containing excess oxygen. The iron is uniformly converted to a single material consisting of iron, oxygen, and water. The material contains 1 molecule of water for every 2 iron atoms reacted.
What mass of oxygen reacts with the iron during this process?
To 3 significant figures, what is the iron content of the product as a percentage of the total mass?
Which of the following is not a role played by water when iron rusts in neutral water?
A shiny iron nail will rust over time. As it rusts, what happens to the total mass?
A steel chain submerged in water is susceptible to rusting. What effect is observed if sodium chloride is added to the water to produce a saturated solution?