Worksheet: Identifying Salts

In this worksheet, we will practice identifying salts from combinations of flame and precipitation tests and predicting the outcome of these experiments.

Q1:

A white salt is soluble in water and reacts with hydrochloric acid to produce a colorless gas. When barium chloride is added to a solution of the salt in water, a white solid precipitates. In a flame test, the salt produces a red flame.

What is the name of the metallic element in the salt?

  • ASodium
  • BStrontium
  • CLithium
  • DCalcium
  • EPotassium

Give the chemical formula of the anion present in the salt.

  • ACl
  • BCO32
  • CNO3
  • DNO2
  • ESO43

Q2:

A white salt is soluble in water and produces a red color in a flame test. Addition of silver nitrate to an aqueous solution of the salt results in a yellow precipitate that does not dissolve in concentrated aqueous ammonia. Addition of sodium hydroxide to a solution of the salt has no visible effect, but adding sodium carbonate produces a white precipitate.

Name the anion present in the salt.

  • ABromide
  • BAcetate
  • CNitrate
  • DSulfate
  • EIodide

Give the symbol of the metallic element in the salt.

  • ASr
  • BRb
  • CMg
  • DLi
  • ECa

Q3:

When barium nitrate is added to a solution of an unknown salt, no precipitate is observed. However, the addition of magnesium nitrate causes a white precipitate to form. Which additional material or reagent could be used to confirm the identity of the anion in the solution?

  • ASodium hydroxide
  • BRed litmus paper
  • CSilver nitrate
  • DConcentrated ammonia solution
  • EBlue litmus paper

Q4:

A collection of white salts have been placed separately into unlabeled bottles. It is known that each salt contains ions of cesium, magnesium, or barium combined with nitrate, chloride, sulfate, or carbonate anions. A student identifies each salt by adding five reagents consecutively to a single sample of the material in a test tube, without filtering between tests. After every test, the student records their visual observations as shown in the table.

1. Water2. Nitric Acid3. Sodium Hydroxide4. Nitric Acid5. Silver Nitrate
Cesium NitrateColorless solutionColorless solutionColorless solutionColorless solutionColorless solution
Compound AWhite solidGas bubbles and colorless solutionColorless solutionColorless solutionColorless solution
Compound BColorless solutionColorless solutionWhite solidColorless solutionWhite solid
Compound CWhite solidWhite solidWhite solidWhite solidWhite solid

Which compound could be confused with cesium nitrate in these tests?

  • AMagnesium sulfate
  • BMagnesium nitrate
  • CCesium chloride
  • DCesium carbonate
  • EBarium nitrate

What is the name of compound A?

  • AMagnesium carbonate
  • BBarium carbonate
  • CBarium sulfate
  • DMagnesium sulfate
  • ECesium carbonate

What is the name of compound B?

  • ACesium sulfate
  • BCesium nitrate
  • CBarium chloride
  • DMagnesium chloride
  • EMagnesium sulfate

What is the name of compound C?

  • ABarium sulfate
  • BMagnesium carbonate
  • CBarium carbonate
  • DMagnesium chloride
  • EMagnesium sulfate

Q5:

A student adds magnesium nitrate and barium nitrate to three cesium salts A–C in an aqueous solution. The student records the visual observations from these tests in a table, as shown.

SaltMagnesium NitrateBarium Nitrate
AWhite precipitateWhite precipitate
BColorless solutionWhite precipitate
CWhite precipitateColorless solution

What is the name of the anion in salt A?

  • AHydroxide
  • BCarbonate
  • CNitrate
  • DSulfate
  • EChloride

What is the name of the anion in salt B?

  • ASulfate
  • BCarbonate
  • CChloride
  • DNitrate
  • EHydroxide

What is the name of the anion in salt C?

  • ASulfate
  • BHydroxide
  • CCarbonate
  • DNitrate
  • EChloride

Which of the cesium salts would react with nitric acid?

  • AB and C
  • BA and C
  • CA only
  • DC only
  • EB only

Q6:

When a solid material X is added to a dilute aqueous solution Y, an exothermic reaction takes place and a gas is produced. A number of possible observations are shown in the table.

ObservationPrecipitateGas Test with a Lit SplintGas Test with Limewater
1WhitePopping soundNo change
2NoneExtinguishes flameCloudy solution
3NoneIntensifies flameNo change
4WhiteExtinguishes flameCloudy solution
5NonePopping soundNo change

Which set of observations would be made if XBaCO=3 and YHSO=24?

Which set of observations would be made if XRb= and YNaCl=?

For XMg= and XBa=, a solution of compound Y produces different sets of observations. Which of the following is a possible formula for compound Y?

  • AAl(NO)33
  • BLiSO24
  • CCuCl2
  • DHBr
  • ENaCO23

Q7:

Different nitrate salts are added separately to dilute aqueous solutions of five sodium salts. The results of these tests are shown in the table.

Sodium SaltAgNO3Pb(NO)32Mg(NO)32Ba(NO)32
1White solidWhite solidSolutionSolution
2White solidWhite solidWhite solidWhite solid
3Yellow solidYellow solidSolutionSolution
4SolutionWhite solidSolutionWhite solid
5Brown solidWhite solidWhite solidSolution

Which sodium salts contain halide ions?

  • A1 and 3
  • B2 and 5
  • C1 and 4
  • D4 only
  • E3 only

Which sodium salts form aqueous solutions that turn red litmus paper blue?

  • A2 only
  • B1, 3, and 5
  • C4 only
  • D2 and 5
  • E1 and 4

Which sodium salt reacts with nitric acid to produce a colorless gas?

Which sodium salt has the smallest molar mass?

Q8:

Which of the following pairs of compounds would not react in water to produce a colored precipitate?

  • ACuCl+Zn2
  • BFe(NO)+NaOH33
  • CAgNO+NaBr3
  • DCuSO+MgBr42
  • EPb(NO)+MgI322

Q9:

A salt produces a green color in a flame test. In aqueous solution, the salt reacts with a number of other compounds, as shown.

CuSO4APb(NO3)2AgNO3

What is the name of the metallic element in the salt?

  • AIron
  • BStrontium
  • CBarium
  • DCopper
  • ERubidium

What is the name of the anion in the salt?

  • AChloride
  • BBromide
  • CIodide
  • DNitrate
  • ECarbonate

If sodium hydroxide is added to the salt solution before the reaction with CuSO4, a different result is obtained. Which of the following images, most accurately, represents the outcome of this reaction?

  • A
  • B
  • C
  • D
  • E

Q10:

A metallic element reacts slowly with water to form a dilute colorless solution, which is tested as shown. In which of the test tubes A, B, and C would a precipitate be observed?

  • ANone of the test tubes
  • BA and B
  • CB and C
  • DB only
  • EA, B, and C

Q11:

A metallic element reacts to form soluble salts when added to hydrochloric, nitric, or sulfuric acids. When sodium hydroxide is added to solutions of these salts, a white solid precipitates.

What is the symbol of the metallic element?

  • AMg
  • BNa
  • CBa
  • DLi
  • ECa

If a salt of the metallic element were analyzed using a flame test, what color of flame would be observed?

  • ANo color
  • BRed
  • CLilac
  • DYellow
  • EGreen

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