**Q4: **

Find the ionization energy of a hydrogen atom in the third energy state. Give your answer to two significant figures.

**Q5: **

Find the shortest wavelength in the Balmer series, recalling that the Rydberg constant is .

**Q6: **

In a hydrogen atom, an electron in its ground state has an energy . A hydrogen atom is in its third excided state.

What is the shortest wavelength photon that the atom can emit?

What is the longest wavelength photon that the atom can emit?

**Q7: **

Find the radius of a hydrogen atom when the electron is in the second excited state. Give your answer to three significant figures.

- A m
- B m
- C m
- D m
- E m

**Q8: **

In a hydrogen atom, an electron in its ground state has an energy . An electron in a hydrogen atom is in the state.

Calculate the electronβs kinetic energy.

Calculate the electronβs potential energy.

Calculate the electronβs total energy.

**Q9: **

A doubly ionized atom of lithium Li 2+ is a hydrogen-like ion. When Li 2+ is in one of its excited states, its radius in this th state is the same as the radius of the first Bohrβs orbit of hydrogen. The atomic number of Li is 3.

Find .

Find the ionization energy for this state of Li 2+. Give your answer to three significant figures.

**Q10: **

A nitrogen atom can hybridize in the configuration. What is the angle between the hybrid orbitals?

**Q11: **

In a hydrogen atom, an electron in its ground state has an energy . An emission line of atomic hydrogen with a wavelength of 4.653 ΞΌm corresponds to transition between the final state and initial state . Find .

**Q12: **

Determine the wavelength of the fifth Balmer line, the transition from to . Give your answer to three significant figures.

**Q13: **

An electron in a ruby laser emits light that has a wavelength of 694.3 nm. What is the difference in energy of the electronβs state before and after emitting the light?

**Q14: **

The maximum characteristic X-ray photon energy comes from the capture of a free electron into a shell vacancy. What is this photon energy in keV for tungsten, assuming that the free electron has no initial kinetic energy?

**Q15: **

In a hydrogen atom, an electron in its ground state has an energy .

Calculate the energy change corresponding to the transition of the hydrogen atom from the state to the state.

**Q16: **

How many times smaller are the wavelengths of X-ray photons produced by gold than those produced by copper?

**Q17: **

The electron configuration of oxygen is 1s^{2} 2s^{2} 2p^{4}. Given this electron configuration, which of the following elements can exhibit all of oxygenβs hybridization modes?

- ACl
- BNa
- CNe
- DN
- ELi

**Q18: **

An electron in an atom is modeled as if it were confined to a box of width m.

What is the ground state energy of the electron?

What percent of the ground state energy of the electron modelled using Bohrβs atomic model is the ground state energy of the electron modelled as being confined to a box?

**Q19: **

An atom can be formed when a negative muon is captured by a proton. The muon has the same charge as the electron and a mass 207 times that of the electron. Calculate the frequency of the photon emitted when this atom makes the transition from to the state. Assume that the muon is orbiting a stationary proton.

- A Hz
- B Hz
- C Hz
- D Hz
- E Hz

**Q20: **

What is the ratio of the wavelengths of X-ray photons produced by silver and by copper?

**Q21: **

Calculate the wavelength of the fourth line in the Lyman series. Give your answer to three significant figures.

**Q22: **

In a hydrogen atom, an electron in its ground state has an energy . What is the frequency of the photon absorbed when the hydrogen atom makes the transition from the ground state to the state?