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Worksheet: Stellar Evolution

Q1:

List the following stages of stellar evolution in order for a certain star that has a mass of 80% of the Sun:

  1. A white dwarf
  2. A nebula
  3. A red giant
  4. A main sequence star
  5. A protostar
  • Ab, a, d, c, e
  • Bb, c, d, e, a
  • Cb, e, c, d, a
  • Db, e, d, c, a
  • Ed, e, b, c, a

Q2:

For approximately how long does a star like the Sun remain a main sequence star?

  • A10 million years
  • B100 million years
  • C100 billion years
  • D10 billion years
  • E1 trillion years

Q3:

Which of the following is the correct description of a black dwarf star?

  • AA black dwarf star is an object that has been left after a supernova in which all of the matter has been compressed into a single point. The gravitational field is so strong that not even light can escape.
  • BA black dwarf star is an extremely dense object that is made up only of neutrons.
  • CA black dwarf star is a type of star that only emits gamma radiation and does not emit any visible light.
  • DA black dwarf star is a white dwarf star that has cooled so that it no longer emits any light.
  • EA black dwarf star is a type of star that is not massive enough to trigger nuclear fusion in its core, and so the only light it emits comes from its heat.

Q4:

For a star that is about the same size as the Sun or smaller, which of the following will it eventually become?

  • AA neutron star
  • BA black hole
  • CA brown dwarf
  • DA white dwarf
  • EA red supergiant

Q5:

The heat generated through nuclear fusion in a star’s core exerts an outward force on the material around it. This would cause the star to expand, but it is balanced by another force acting upon the material in the star, which keeps it stable. What is the other force acting on the matter in the star?

  • AElectrostatic repulsion
  • BElectrostatic attraction
  • CPressure
  • DGravity

Q6:

Which of the following is the correct description of a nebula?

  • AA nebula is a dense object that is made up only of neutrons.
  • BA nebula is a collection of billions of stars.
  • CA nebula is a fast-spinning neutron star.
  • DA nebula is a cloud of gas and dust within a galaxy.
  • EA nebula is a collection of galaxies.

Q7:

The Sun is a main sequence star. For stars that are about the same size as the Sun or smaller, what is the next stage in their stellar evolution?

  • AThey explode as a supernova.
  • BThey expand to become red supergiants.
  • CThey become black holes.
  • DThey expand to become red giants.
  • EThey become neutron stars.

Q8:

The diagram shows nine possible stages in the evolution of a star. For a star that will eventually become a neutron star, give the correct stages in the correct order, starting from a nebula.