Lesson Worksheet: The Mechanism of Breathing Biology

In this worksheet, we will practice describing the key structures and movements involved in inspiration and expiration and explaining how changes in lung pressure initiate the movement of air.

Q1:

The diagram shows the process of inspiration, which increases the volume of the lungs. How does this encourage air to enter the lungs?

  • AAn increase in volume increases the pressure in the lungs relative to the atmosphere, so air is pulled into the lungs.
  • BAn increase in volume decreases the pressure in the lungs relative to the atmosphere, so air is pulled into the lungs.
  • CAn increase in volume decreases the pressure in the lungs relative to the atmosphere, so air diffuses out of the lungs.
  • DAn increase in volume increases the pressure in the lungs relative to the atmosphere, so air is pushed into the lungs.

Q2:

The diagram shows the process of expiration, which decreases the volume of the lungs. How does this encourage air to exit the lungs?

  • AA decrease in volume decreases the pressure of the lungs relative to the atmosphere, so air is pushed out of the lungs.
  • BA decrease in volume decreases the pressure of the lungs relative to the atmosphere, so air is pulled into the lungs.
  • CA decrease in volume increases the pressure of the lungs relative to the atmosphere, so air is pushed out of the lungs.
  • DA decrease in volume increases the pressure of the lungs relative to the atmosphere, so air is pulled into the lungs.

Q3:

Which of the following statements about the energy requirements of inspiration and expiration is correct?

  • ABoth inspiration and expiration are active processes requiring an input of energy.
  • BInspiration is an active process requiring energy, whereas expiration is generally passive.
  • CExpiration is an active process requiring energy, whereas inspiration is generally passive.
  • DBoth inspiration and expiration are passive processes and do not require a large input of energy.

Q4:

The mechanism of inhaling and exhaling changes the pressure of the lungs relative to the atmosphere. Which of the following best describes how gas molecules move according to pressure?

  • AGas flows from an area of high pressure to an area of low pressure.
  • BChanges in pressure have no effect on gas flow.
  • CGas flows from an area of low pressure to an area of high pressure.
  • DGas flows from an area of low pressure to an area of medium pressure.

Q5:

The diagram shows the structures involved in inhaling air in humans. What structure is indicated by label 2?

  • AIntercostal muscles
  • BRib cage
  • CBronchioles
  • DDiaphragm

Q6:

The diagram shows the structures involved in inhaling air in humans. What structure is indicated by label 1?

  • ABronchi
  • BRib cage
  • CTrachea
  • DIntercostal muscles
  • EDiaphragm

Q7:

The diagram shows the structures involved in inhaling air in humans. What structure is indicated by label 3?

  • ABronchioles
  • BDiaphragm
  • CIntercostal muscles
  • DRib cage

Q8:

The graph provided shows how pulmonary (lung) pressure changes with the volume of the lungs. What type of correlation is demonstrated by this relationship?

  • ACausal correlation
  • BPositive correlation
  • CNegative correlation
  • DNeutral correlation

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