Lesson Worksheet: Components of the Blood Biology

In this worksheet, we will practice describing the structure and function of the major components of the blood.


The given table shows some of the functions of different components of the blood. State the correct component for each function.

FunctionClotting bloodTargeting and destroying pathogensCarrying oxygen Transporting waste substances and nutrients
  • A1: Platelets, 2: White blood cells, 3: Red blood cells, 4: Plasma
  • B1: Red blood cells, 2: White blood cells, 3: Platelets, 4: Plasma
  • C1: Platelets, 2: Red blood cells, 3: White blood cells, 4: Plasma
  • D1: Plasma, 2: White blood cells, 3: Red blood cells, 4: Platelets


What is the scientific name given to red blood cells in humans?

  • APhagocytes
  • BHaemocytes
  • CLymphocytes
  • DErythrocytes
  • EOocytes


Which of the following is not a major component of blood in humans?

  • AEpithelial cells
  • BRed blood cells
  • CWhite blood cells
  • DPlasma
  • EPlatelets


What is the main function of white blood cells in the body?

  • ATargeting pathogens and fighting off infections
  • BTransporting carbon dioxide to the lungs to be excreted
  • CBinding to oxygen to transport it to respiring cells
  • DHelping the blood clot


Plasma in the blood transports the products of digestion to cells that require them. Which of the following is a product of digestion that is transported to human body cells for respiration?

  • AGlucose
  • BSucrose
  • CGlucagon
  • DLactose


What is the main function of blood plasma?

  • ATargeting pathogens and fighting off infections
  • BBinding to oxygen and transporting it to cells to be used in respiration
  • CTransporting blood cells and other important substances around the body
  • DHelping the blood clot in the arteries


The given diagram demonstrates the average percentages of the main components of blood in a sample. What component is label A representing?

  • APhagocytes
  • BPlasma
  • CWater
  • DLymphocytes
  • EHemoglobin


Red blood cells do not contain a nucleus. What is the advantage of this?

  • AThe cell can form a convex shape to increase its surface area.
  • BThere is more space within the cell for the genetic material.
  • CThere is more space within the cell for mitochondria.
  • DThe cell can divide more rapidly to make new cells.
  • EThere is more space within the cell for hemoglobin.


Red blood cells contain a protein that has the ability to bind to oxygen and gives the cell its red color. What is this protein called?

  • AMyoglobin
  • BHemolin
  • CHemoglobin
  • DChlorophyll


The diagram given shows multiple, normal red blood cells in a blood vessel.

What scientific term best describes the shape of a mature red blood cell?

  • ABiconcave
  • BCircular
  • CBiconvex
  • DConvex

Why does a red blood cell have this shape?

  • ATo decrease the surface area, therefore restricting the volume of oxygen lost from the cell
  • BTo provide a large surface area for the active transport of oxygen in and out of the cell
  • CTo increase the available surface area, so more oxygen can diffuse in and out of the cell
  • DTo increase the volume of the cell, so more genetic material can be carried around the body

This lesson includes 17 additional questions for subscribers.

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