Worksheet: Uses of Metals
In this worksheet, we will practice identifying the uses of metals such as copper, aluminum, and steel based on their physical and chemical properties.
Which of the following is not a potential advantage of steel over aluminum?
- AHigher hardness
- BLower cost
- CHigher strength
- DLower density
- EHigher melting point
Which of the following is not a potential disadvantage of lead relative to tin?
- ALower reactivity
- BLower strength
- CHigher density
- DHigher toxicity
Which of the following values is generally higher for aluminum alloys than for copper?
- AElectrical conductivity
- CMelting point
- DCost per kilogram
For the storage of liquids, cans made from tin are often preferred over those made from steel. What is the main advantage of tin over steel in this application?
- ALower cost
- BLower density
- CHigher strength
- DLower reactivity
- ELower thermal conductivity
Aluminum and iron have a range of physical and chemical properties. Based on how the two metals differ, which property can be most easily exploited to separate the two metals when they are being recycled?
- AChemical reactivity
- DMelting point
- EThermal conductivity
In ancient Rome, water was frequently transported through pipes made from lead.
Which of the following is not a property of lead that makes it more suitable than other structural metals for this application?
- AHigh malleability
- BLow reactivity
- CLow cost
- DHigh strength
The use of water pipes made from lead is now usually avoided. Which potential hazard is mostly responsible for this change?
- ALeaks due to rusting of lead
- BWater contamination due to dissolution of lead
- CWater contamination due to rusting of lead
- DLeaks due to melting of lead
- ELeaks due to cracking of lead
Metals may be used to transfer thermal energy in heating systems.
Which physical property is most important in the selection of a metal for heating applications?
- BElectrical conductivity
- CThermal conductivity
- EMelting point
What metal is most suitable for use in small-scale heating applications?
Although steel is sometimes used in place of aluminum in automobiles, aluminum is strongly preferred in aircraft. Which property is most responsible for the difference in the use of metals in these applications?
- BElectrical conductivity
The uses of tin, iron, aluminum, and copper partly depend on their reactivities. Using the elemental symbols, arrange these metals in order of increasing reactivity.
Magnesium is a reactive metal that burns in oxygen to produce a bright white flame. Why is it possible to use large blocks of magnesium in construction?
- AReaction of the magnesium is only possible at high oxygen concentrations.
- BReaction of the magnesium is limited by the formation of an unreactive oxide layer.
- CReaction of the magnesium is prevented by galvanization of the blocks.
- DReaction of the magnesium is only possible at high temperatures.
- EReaction of the magnesium is limited by the small surface areas of the blocks.
Food is placed in airtight metal containers for storage in a mobile refrigerator. The trays may be made from steel or aluminum.
Why is contamination of the food less likely if the containers are made from aluminum rather than steel?
- AAluminum is less likely to tear when cooled because it is a more malleable metal.
- BAluminum is less likely to tear when cooled because it is a stronger metal.
- CAluminum aids refrigeration because it has a higher thermal conductivity.
- DAluminum is less corroded by food because it is a less reactive metal.
- EAluminum is less corroded by food because it is better protected by surface oxide.
Why is it much less expensive to store, refrigerate, and transport a large quantity of food if the containers are made from aluminum rather than steel?
- AAluminum is more thermally conductive than steel, so less energy is needed to refrigerate the containers.
- BAluminum is less dense than steel, so lighter containers may be used.
- CAluminum is stronger than steel, so thinner containers may be used.
- DAluminum is less expensive than steel, so the cost of the containers is lower.
- EAluminum is stronger than steel, so less food is wasted due to breakage of the containers.
Listed in the table are the physical properties that are prioritized when selecting metals for five different applications.
|Priority 1||Very low weight||Very high thermal conductivity||Very high strength||Very low cost||Very high strength|
|Priority 2||Corrosion resistance||Moderate cost||Low weight||High malleability||Low cost|
|Priority 3||High malleability||High ductility||Corrosion resistance||Moderate strength||Corrosion resistance|
For which application would copper be most suitable?
For which application would stainless steel be most suitable?
For which application would wrought iron be most suitable?
For which application would aluminum be most suitable?
The table shows the properties of five different metals.
|Strength||Very high||High||Low||Moderate||Very high|
|Corrosion Resistance||Low||Low||Very high||High||Very high|
Which metal is most suitable for use in aircraft bodies?
Which metal is most suitable for use in mass-produced gates and railings?
Which metal is most suitable for use in hip replacements?
A large bridge is made mostly of steel.
Which physical property of steel makes it most suitable for this application?
- AHigh corrosion resistance
- BLow density
- CHigh malleability
- DA high melting point
- EHigh strength
Why is it important to paint the steel regularly?
- ATo prevent rust formation
- BTo decrease brittleness
- CTo increase strength
- DTo fill cracks
- ETo minimize temperature changes
Which of the following categories contains the majority of elements?
- BThird-period elements
- CNoble gases
- ETransition elements