Lesson Worksheet: Prokaryote and Virus Structure Biology

In this worksheet, we will practice describing the structure and function of the parts of prokaryotic cells and viruses and identifying similarities and differences between eukaryotes, prokaryotes, and viruses.


Viruses and prokaryotes are made of different chemical components.

What is the main substance that is present in the cell wall of prokaryotes?

  • AChitin
  • BMurein/peptidoglycan
  • CGlycogen
  • DCellulose

What is the main substance that makes up the capsid of viruses?

  • AProtein
  • BPhospholipid
  • CMurein/peptidoglycan
  • DRNA
  • EDNA


Which of the following correctly states a common feature of prokaryotes and viruses?

  • ABoth prokaryotes and viruses have a slime capsule.
  • BBoth prokaryotes and viruses contain genetic material.
  • CBoth prokaryotes and viruses contain ribosomes.
  • DBoth prokaryotes and viruses reproduce by binary fission.
  • EBoth prokaryotes and viruses store food as glycogen or lipid.


Which list correctly shows the relative sizes of viruses, prokaryotic cells, and eukaryotic cells from largest to smallest?

  • AVirusesprokaryoteseukaryotes>>
  • BEukaryotesvirusesprokaryotes>>
  • CProkaryoteseukaryotesviruses>>
  • DEukaryotesprokaryotesviruses>>
  • EProkaryotesviruseseukaryotes>>


The following statements refer to structures and processes inside cells:

  1. Genes are switched on and off in groups called operons.
  2. A flagellum of a microtubule (arranged in 9 + 2) is powered by ATP.
  3. Food is stored as glycogen granules and lipid droplets.
  4. Mitochondria are present in the cytoplasm and carry out respiration.
  5. Proteins are synthesized on 70S ribosomes.

Which statements apply to prokaryotic cells?

  • AI, III, and V
  • BI, IV, and V
  • CI, II, and V
  • DII, IV, and V
  • EII, III, and IV


The figure shows part of the structure of the tobacco mosaic virus (TMV), a rod-shaped virus that infects a wide range of plants, causing a mottled appearance of the leaves and decreasing productivity.

What is the substance labeled X?

  • AProtein
  • BRNA
  • CDNA
  • DPhospholipid
  • EMurein

What is the name of structure Y?

  • ACapsid
  • BCell wall
  • CFlagellum
  • DCapsule
  • ELipid envelope


The figure shows the structure of a 𝜆-phage virus.

Bacteriophage virus

What type of cell does this virus infect?

  • ABacterial cells
  • BCiliated cells
  • CT-helper cells
  • DFungal cells
  • EPlant cells

Fill in the blank: Under certain conditions, the phage’s DNA is integrated into the host cell’s DNA and remains there for some time, causing no harm to the host until the viral replication process is triggered. This is called the pathway.

  • Alysogenic
  • Bstealth
  • Crecombination
  • Ddormancy
  • Elytic


The figure shows Streptococcus bacteria, where each bacterium is 0.5 μm in diameter, and an influenza virus, which is 100 nm in diameter.

What is the difference in size between the bacterium and the virus?

  • AThe bacterium is 50 times bigger.
  • BThe bacterium is 200 times smaller.
  • CThe bacterium is 200 times bigger.
  • DThe bacterium is 5 times smaller.
  • EThe bacterium is 5 times bigger.


The figure shows the structure of a typical prokaryote.

Structure X is an infolding of phospholipid that is thought to be a site for chemical reactions. What is the name of this structure?

  • ARibosome
  • BLysosome
  • CChromosome
  • DMesosome

Match the correct letters to the structures listed.

  • A
    CapsuleCell wallCell membrane
  • B
    Capsule Cell wall Cell membrane
    C B A
  • C
    Capsule Cell wall Cell membrane
    A C B
  • D
    Capsule Cell wall Cell membrane
    B A C
  • E
    Capsule Cell wall Cell membrane
    C A B


The figure shows a time line of the evolution of life.

According to the information in the figure, for how long were prokaryotes present on Earth before eukaryotic cells first evolved?

  • AApproximately 2.1 million years
  • BApproximately 1,800 billion years
  • CApproximately 1,000 million years
  • DApproximately 3.9 billion years

Using the information in the figure, deduce the source of the oxygen in the atmosphere.

  • APhotosynthetic eukaryotes
  • BPhotosynthetic fungi
  • CPhotosynthetic prokaryotes
  • DPhotosynthetic protozoa


The figure shows a bacterial cell that possesses a flagellum.

What is the function of the flagellum?

  • ALocomotion
  • BTransferring energy for the cell to use for life processes
  • CAllowing bacteria to stick together
  • DExchanging genetic material with other cells

Chemiosmosis occurs inside the basal body.

What is the source of energy that directly drives the motor?

  • AA gradient of hydrogen ions
  • BThe movement of water
  • CA gradient of sodium ions
  • DLight
  • EATP

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