### Video Transcript

Piecewise Functions

But first, we need to remember that
the domain, to make in, are always the 𝑥-axis and the input values, and the range
is always the 𝑦-axis and the output values. We also have to remember that a
function is where every element in the domain is mapped to exactly one element in
the range. So this is what a piecewise
function actually looks like. And a piecewise function can be
defined as a function which more than one formula is used to define the range over
different pieces of the domain. So what that means is, this formula
one is only part of the range. It’s only part of the function if
𝑥 is in that part of the domain, and same with formula two and formula three. Now there can be as many formulas
within a piecewise function as we need to be part of the function. There’s obviously no maximum, but
the minimum is of course two. Because otherwise, it’ll just be a
function. Now another important thing to
note, is that only one formula can be applied to one domain. And that’ll make more sense as we
have a look at this next example.

The function 𝑓 of 𝑥 is defined by
𝑓 of 𝑥 is equal to five minus two 𝑥, if 𝑥 is less than one, and 𝑥 squared plus
three, if 𝑥 is greater than or equal to one. Find the domain and range. So looking at these inequalities,
we can see what I said just before, that only one function can be applied to one
part of the domain. So we can see for the first
function it’s everything less than one, and then for the second function it’s
everything greater than or equal to one. They can’t both be also equal. Okay. So let’s start finding the domain
and range. First thing we should do, is sketch
both of the graphs individually and then combine them to one axis. I’m gonna go ahead and just combine
them to one axis straightaway.

So this is the graph 𝑓 of 𝑥
equals five minus two 𝑥. And this is the graph 𝑓 of 𝑥
equals 𝑥 squared plus three. Now you’ll notice these
circles. We’ve done this because we’ve said
in this circle that’s coloured in, that means that function is also included in this
coordinate, whereas this circle is not coloured in so therefore it’s not also
included. And that’s going back to how we act
on number lines.

Okay. So let’s find the domain and
range. Well we know that the domain is
every possible input value in the 𝑥-axis. So whatever 𝑥 could be, well we
know that 𝑥 could be any real number, as 𝑥 can be any negative number from the
five minus two 𝑥 function, and the 𝑥 can be any positive number from 𝑥 squared
plus three. We’re also given this in the
question, because we’re told that 𝑥 is going to be everything less than one and
also everything greater than one. So therefore, the domain is just 𝑥
in the real set of numbers. Or we could say, every 𝑥 value
from negative infinity to positive infinity, if you prefer set notation.

Now looking at the range, we know
that the range are all of our output values or the 𝑦-axis. And we can see that we’re going to
receive every 𝑦 value greater than three. Now that’s important to note. It’s greater than three because
this coordinate here is not actually included within the function. So 𝑓 of 𝑥 is greater than
three.

Okay. So just to recap, a piecewise
function, after we have here, is a function which has multiple formulas to define
the range over different pieces of the given domain. And we know that the domain is the
𝑥-axis, all of our input values. And the range is the 𝑦-axis, all
of our output values. And what we should do when we’re
given a piecewise function, is sketch it and find them.