### Video Transcript

When an atom undergoes sp π
hybridization, how many hybrid orbitals are formed? (A) π plus one hybrid orbitals,
(B) π hybrid orbitals, or (C) π minus one hybrid orbitals.

In this question, we want to find
out how many hybrid orbitals are formed in sp π hybridization.

We know that orbitals, whether they
are atomic or molecular orbitals, are mathematical functions that describe the
location and wavelike behavior of an electron in an atom or molecule. So what is hybridization and what
are hybrid orbitals? Orbital hybridization is the mixing
of atomic orbitals into new and different types of hybrid orbitals, which all have
the same energy. These hybrid orbitals are all
equally capable of forming covalent bonds. Some atomic orbitals we are
familiar with are the 1s atomic orbital, the 2s atomic orbital, and the three 2p
atomic orbitals. They each have different energies,
and the p orbitals are orientated in different planes.

Atomic orbitals within the valence
shell can mix in different ways. We call this mixing
hybridization. So how do we determine the type of
hybridization of an atom in a molecule? First, we count the number of atoms
around a central atom. Letβs use water as an example, and
letβs determine the hybridization of the oxygen atom. Oxygen is the central atom around
which are two hydrogen atoms. Next, we count the number of lone
pairs around the atom in question. There are two lone pairs. Then we add these two values to get
the number of hybrid orbitals which form. Adding, we get four.

Now the types of hybrid orbitals
commonly formed in atoms as they bond to form molecules are sp hybrid orbitals,
which form from the mixing of an s and a p orbital, and this mixing forms two sp
orbitals. When an s atomic orbital and two p
atomic orbitals mix, they form three equivalent sp two hybrid orbitals. And when an s atomic orbital mixes
with three p atomic orbitals, four equivalent sp three hybrid orbitals form. In our example, oxygen has four sp
three hybrid orbitals. Two of these hybrid orbitals it
uses to bond with the two hydrogen atoms, and the other two contain oxygenβs lone
pairs.

We can use the formula sp π to
work out the number of hybrid orbitals in any hybridized atom. There is only one s orbital used in
each type of hybrid orbital. And if we call the number of p
orbitals π, then the number of hybrid orbitals formed is one plus π, or π plus
one, which matches answer option (A).

So, how many hybrid orbitals are
formed when an atom undergoes sp π hybridization? The answer is (A), π plus one
hybrid orbitals.