### Video Transcript

π΄π΅πΆ is a triangle, where π΅πΆ
equals 48 centimeters and three forces of magnitudes 13, 13, and 24 newtons are
acting along lines πΆπ΄, π΄π΅, and π΅πΆ, respectively. If the system of forces is
equivalent to a couple, determine the magnitude of its moment.

Letβs begin by sketching out our
triangle. We have our triangle π΄π΅πΆ, where
the length π΅πΆ is 48 centimeters. Weβre going to add the forces of
magnitude 13, 13, and 24 newtons to the diagram. A 13-newton force acts along the
line πΆπ΄, as shown. Another 13-newton force acts along
the line π΄π΅. And then our 24-newton acts from π΅
to πΆ.

Now, in fact, we can use the
relationship between the length of line segment π΅πΆ and the force that acts along
this line to calculate the length of lines π΄π΅ and π΄πΆ. We might spot that the ratio
between 48 and 24 is one-half. And so line segments π΄π΅ and π΄πΆ
will need to be 26 centimeters each for the ratio between the lengths and the forces
in these sides to be the same.

And this is really useful because
weβre told that the system of forces is equivalent to a couple. And so if we take the sum of the
moments about any point on this triangle, weβll get the same value. So weβll determine the magnitude of
the moment by taking the moments about a given point. We could choose any point on our
triangle. Letβs take point π΄ and take the
clockwise direction to be positive.

The moment, of course, is the
product of the force and the perpendicular distance from the pivot. Now the only force that this
applies to really is the force acting from π΅ to πΆ. We see this acts at a point 26
centimeters away from π΄, but the 24-newton force does not necessarily act at an
angle of 90 degrees. So we need to calculate the
component of this force thatβs perpendicular to line segment π΄π΅.

To do so, weβll begin by using the
law of cosines to find the angle π΄π΅πΆ that weβve labeled π. The law of cosines tells us that
cos of π΅ is equal to π squared plus π squared minus π squared over two ππ. In this case then, cos of π is 48
squared plus 26 squared minus 26 squared over two times 48 times 26. And this means we can evaluate cos
of π exactly. 26 squared minus 26 squared is
zero. Then we can simplify by dividing
through by 48.

So weβre left with 48 over two
times 26. And then we can divide the
numerator and denominator of this fraction by four. And so cos of π simplifies to 12
over 13. And whilst we could take the
inverse cos or arccos of both sides of this equation to find the value of π, we can
actually use the Pythagorean theorem to find exact values for sin of π as well. Since the cosine ratio links the
adjacent and hypotenuse in a right triangle and since five squared plus 12 squared
equals 13 squared, we know that the third side in this triangle, the opposite side,
must be five units. And so in this triangle, sin of π
is five over 13.

Now the reason thatβs going to be
useful will become apparent later on. For now, we need to work out the
component of the 24-newton force that is perpendicular to line segment π΄π΅. Since they are perpendicular, they
meet at an angle of 90 degrees. And so the angle on the outside of
the triangle here we can label as being 90 minus π. And so the component of our
24-newton force thatβs perpendicular to π΄π΅ is found by considering the adjacent
side in this right triangle. And so itβs 24 cos of 90 minus
π. This means that the moment is the
product of 24 cos of 90 minus π and the distance from the pivot, 26.

And now we notice that we can
evaluate cos of 90 minus π using the identity sin π. And of course, we worked out that
sin π was five over 13. And so the moment is going to be 24
times five over 13 times 26. Letβs simplify this expression by
dividing through by 13. And we get 24 times five over one
times two. But of course, five over one times
two is 10, so this becomes 24 times 10, which is 240. And that is the magnitude of our
moment. Since weβre working in newtons and
centimeters, the moment is given in newton centimeters. And so given the information about
our system of forces, the magnitude of its moment is 240 newton centimeters.