### Video Transcript

In this video, weβre going to look at how to apply your knowledge of the volume
and surface area of cylinders to some more complex problems. First of all, a quick reminder of the formulae that weβre going to need. So we have
here a diagram of a cylinder and we have its two key dimensions marked on it. So we have
the height of the cylinder represented by β and then the radius of the base of the cylinder
represented by π.

So the volume formula first of all, the formula for calculating the volume is this: ππ squared multiplied by
β. ππ squared remember gives the area of the base of this cylinder and then multiply it by
β, the height. Next the formula for the surface area of the cylinder, and there are two types of
surface area that we need to consider. The first is the lateral surface area, which is just the
curved surface,
and this is given by two ππβ. Remember that came about because the curved surface if
you were to flatten it out is actually a rectangle with one dimension equal to β and the
other dimension two ππ, which is the circumference of the circular base.
The other formula we need is for the total surface area of the cylinder, so the
curved part and the top and the base. And so this formula has a two ππβ as before, but it also has a
contribution of two ππ squared as I mentioned for the circle on the top and the circle on
the base of the cylinder. So those the formulae that weβre going to need and now we will see how to apply
them to a couple of different questions.

So here is our first question. It says a cylinder has a height of five centimetres and
its lateral surface area is thirty-two π centimetre squared. We are asked to calculate the volume of
this cylinder. So in order to calculate the volume, weβre going to need that volume formula,
which is that the volume is equal to ππ squared β.
But we havenβt actually been given the radius in the information in the question.
Weβve been given something else instead; weβve been given the lateral surface area. So this
question is going to involve using that known surface area to calculate the radius so that we
can then use that in our calculation of the volume. So letβs recall what the formula for the lateral surface area was, and it was this that is equal to two ππβ.

So what we can do is use the information that we know to form an equation.
So two ππβ, that is two multiplied by π multiplied by π, which we donβt know, multiplied by
β, which from the information given in the question is five centimetres. And weβre also told in the
question that this is equal to a lateral surface area of thirty-two π.
So Iβve used the information in the question to set up this equation here. Now I can simplify this equation slightly. So on the left-hand side, I have two times five,
which is ten. So Iβve got ten ππ.
So I can write it out without those multiplication signs. So I want to go ahead and solve this equation to work out the value of π. So I have a
factor of π on both sides of the equation; I can divide three by π, which will cancel those
out.
And so now what I have is ten π is equal to thirty-two. Well in order to work out the
radius, I need to divide by ten.
And so this gives me the π is equal to three point two, and of course itβs three point
two centimetres because those are the units in the question.

Now I have all the information that I need in order to calculate the volume of
this cylinder. So I can return to my volume formula. And now I know that π is three point
two and β is five, so I can substitute both of those values into this
formula. So I have volume equals π multiplied by three point two squared multiplied by five;
this gives me an answer in terms of π of two hundred and fifty-six π over five. And I
could leave my answer at this stage here if I didnβt have a calculator or if I was asked to
leave my answer in terms of π. But if I evaluate this as a decimal,
then this gives me an answer of one hundred and sixty point eight centimetres cubed for
the volume, and that has been rounded to one decimal place.
So in this question, we needed to record two relevant formulae, and we needed to
work backwards from knowing the lateral surface area to calculate the radius so that we can
then go on to calculate the volume of this cylinder.

This is the next question that weβre going to look at. The volume of a cylinder
of height seven centimetres is one hundred and ninety-six centimetres cubed. We are asked to calculate to the
nearest tenth the circumference of the base of the cylinder. So letβs think about the key piece of information that weβre going to need during
this question. Weβre told the volume of the cylinder is a hundred and ninety-six centimetres cubed; so weβre
going to need to use our volume formula at some point,
which remember is this formula here volume is equal to ππ squared β.
Now weβre told that the height of the cylinder is seven centimetres, but weβre
not told explicitly what the radius of the cylinder is. So weβre going to have to work backwards from knowing the volume and the height
to working out the radius because we need the radius in order to calculate the circumference.

So letβs start then by setting up an equation involving the known volume and the
known height and this unknown radius π. So we know that π multiplied by π squared multiplied by the height which is seven we
know that this is equal to one hundred and ninety-six centimetres cubed.
So here is our equation. Now I can simplify the left-hand side slightly; I can write it as
seven ππ squared.
And thatβs just as that you need two ways of writing it because we donβt need the
multiplication signs in the algebra. Now Iβm looking to solve this equation to work out the value of π. So the first step
would be to divide both sides of this equation by seven π.
So I will have π squared is equal to one hundred and ninety-six over seven π.
Now I could evaluate it at this point. But in order to keep it exactly I want, the next
step is I need to take the square root of both sides.
So I have π is equal to the square root of a hundred and ninety-six over seven π. And
if I then evaluate this using my calculator,
then Iβll have π is equal to two point nine-eight five four.

Now Iβm not going to round this value of π at this point because if I do, I could
introduce the rounding error to the next stage of the calculation. So Iβm just gonna keep
that value on my calculator screen. Now remember the question asks us to calculate the circumference of the base of the
cylinder. So I need to think back to my other work on circles and will call that the formula
for calculating the circumference of a circle is either π times π, the diameter, or two ππ.
So Iβll use this formula with π in as thatβs what Iβve just
calculated. So now I just need to substitute that value of π into this formula. Remember Iβve kept it
on my calculator. So Iβm just gonna multiply the value on my calculator display by two
π.
And when I do that, I get a value of eighteen point seven five seven and so on.
Now remember the question asked me to calculate this to the nearest tenth. So Iβm going
to round my answer and to the nearest tenth, it will be eighteen point eight.
Remember a circumference is a length, so the units for this in this case are
centimeters because those were the units of the other measurements in the question.

Right, the final question that weβre going to look at in this video, it says the
volume of the cylinder shown is one thousand two hundred and seventy-eight π over five cubic
inches. We are asked to calculate the height of this cylinder. So looking at the diagram, we can see that we are given the radius of the
cylinder β itβs six inches β but weβre missing this measurement of the height. So letβs think about the key formulae that weβre going to need. Weβre told the
volume of the cylinder. So weβre going to need our formula for the volume. And here it is; it is ππ squared β that weβre now quite familiar with.

So as in previous questions, we can use the information we do know to set up an
equation that we can then solve to work out the information we donβt. So ππ squared β, that is going to be π multiplied by six squared multiplied by β and
weβre told that this is equal to one thousand two hundred and seventy-eight π all over five.
So here is our equation involving that unknown height.
Right, next letβs just tidy this equation up a bit. So six square is thirty-six. So on the
left-hand side, I have thirty-six πβ
and the right-hand side is exactly as it was before. Now I have a factor of π on both
sides, so dividing the equation through by π will just cancel out those two factors of
π.
And now on the left-hand side, what Iβve got now is thirty-six β. So if I want to know
just what β is, I need to divide both sides of this equation by thirty-six.
That has the effect of the thirty-six appearing as another factor on the denominator of
the right-hand side.
So now I have an explicit expression for β, so I can evaluate this. And doing so, I get that β is equal to seven point one.
Units remember this time are inches. So my answer to the question is that
the height of the cylinder is equal to seven point one inches.

So to summarise then, weβve looked at how you can use your knowledge of volume
and surface area of a cylinder to solve some more complex problems, most of which have involved
working backwards from knowing either the volume or the surface area to then calculating a
missing dimension in the cylinder.