### Video Transcript

Fill in the blank. In the following figure, the vector
from π΄ to π΅ added to the vector from π΅ to πΆ added to the vector from πΆ to π·
added to the vector from π· to πΈ is equal to what.

In this question, weβre given a
diagram containing an irregular pentagon π΄π΅πΆπ·πΈ. We need to determine the sum of
four of the vectors representing the sides of this pentagon. And there are in fact two different
ways we can go about answering this question, and weβll go through both of
these. Letβs start by looking at the
vectors weβre asked to sum, the vector from π΄ to π΅ added to the vector from π΅ to
πΆ added to the vector from πΆ to π· added to the vector from π· to πΈ.

If we add these vectors onto our
diagram, we can see that these are the vectors starting at vertex π΄ going around
the sides of this pentagon all the way up to vertex πΈ. And this gives us several different
methods we can use to answer this question. One way is to add the vector from
πΈ to π΄ onto this diagram. Adding this vector onto our diagram
and remembering when we add vectors together, weβre adding the displacements of the
vectors together, we can notice something interesting. The sum of all of these vectors is
going to be the zero vector. One way of seeing this is to start
at vertex π΄ and consider the displacement when we add each of these vectors in
turn.

Starting at vertex π΄ and traveling
along the vector from π΄ to π΅ will end us at the point π΅. We can continue this process. We can travel along the vector from
π΅ to πΆ to end up at the point πΆ, then travel along the vector from πΆ to π· to
end up at the point π·. And if we keep following this
process, we will end up back at the point π΄. Combining the displacements and
directions of all five of these vectors ends us back at the point we started, a
displacement of zero in both the horizontal and vertical directions. Therefore, the sum of these five
vectors is equal to the zero vector. We get the following vector
equation. And we can rearrange this equation
to find an expression for the blank in the given equation. We subtract the vector from πΈ to
π΄ from both sides of the equation.

This gives us that the vector from
π΄ to π΅ added to the vector from π΅ to πΆ added to the vector from πΆ to π· added
to the vector from π· to πΈ must be equal to negative the vector from πΈ to π΄. And of course, we could fill in the
blank with this expression. However, itβs worth noting we can
simplify this vector expression on the right-hand side of the equation. We can recall that multiplying a
vector by negative one is the same as leaving its magnitude unchanged and switching
its direction. In other words, negative the vector
from πΈ to π΄ will be just equal to the vector from π΄ to πΈ. Therefore, this is one way of
showing that the sum of these four vectors in the diagram will be the vector from π΄
to πΈ. And itβs worth pointing out this
process will work for more complicated polygons as well.

There is another method worth going
through to answer this question. And to go through this method,
letβs start by recalling the triangle rule for vector addition. This tells us we can add two
vectors together given graphically or given in terms of their vertices if the
terminal point of one vector is coincident with the initial point of the other
vector. In other words, the vector from π
to π added to the vector from π to π
will be equal to the vector from π to
π
. This then gives us two different
methods we can use to evaluate the given addition. We can do it from the figure or we
can also do this just from the given expression.

To use this method in the given
figure, we can add each of the vectors separately. First, we can add the vector from
π΄ to π΅ to the vector from π΅ to πΆ. We can see that this starts at the
initial point π΄ and terminates at the point πΆ, so itβs equivalent to the vector
from π΄ to πΆ. This adds the first two vectors in
this given expression. We can then add on the next vector,
the vector from πΆ to π·. We can do this once again by using
the triangle rule, since the vector from π΄ to πΆ terminates at the point πΆ and the
vector from πΆ to π· has initial point at vertex πΆ. This then gives us the vector from
π΄ to π·. In other words, weβve shown that
the sum of the first three vectors in this given expression simplifies to give us
the vector from π΄ to π·.

And of course, we can apply this
process one more time to add on the vector from π· to πΈ. When we apply this process one
final time, we can see that our initial point will be vertex π΄ and the terminal
point of our vector will be vertex πΈ. In other words, all of these
vectors sum to give us the vector from π΄ to πΈ, which agrees with our other method
of answering this question. And as discussed previously, we can
also do this directly from the given vector expression. First, remember we can add the
vectors in any order. So letβs start by adding the first
two vectors by using the triangle rule for vector addition. The terminal point of the first
vector is point π΅, and the initial point of the second vector is point π΅. So this will be the vector from π΄
to πΆ.

We can follow the same process for
the vector from π΄ to πΆ and the vector from πΆ to π·. We can add these two vectors
together using the triangle rule to get the vector from π΄ to π·. And we need to add this to the
vector from π· to πΈ. We do this one final time by using
the triangle rule. And when we do this, we once again
get the vector from π΄ to πΈ. Therefore, we were able to show
several different methods of determining the vector from π΄ to π΅ added to the
vector from π΅ to πΆ added to the vector from πΆ to π· added to the vector from π·
to πΈ is equal to the vector from π΄ to πΈ.