In this video, we will learn how to
identify congruent polygons and use their properties to find a missing side length
or angle. So, let’s begin by thinking what
are congruent polygons.
We could say that polygons are
congruent when they have the same number of sides and all corresponding sides and
interior angles are congruent. In other words, we can say that
they are the same shape and size, but they can be rotated or a mirror image of each
other. So here, for example, we have two
rectangles. We can see that corresponding sides
are congruent. And each corresponding angle in the
first rectangle would be equal to that in the second rectangle, meaning that these
two rectangles are congruent. In order to demonstrate that two
polygons are congruent, we have to show that all corresponding sides and interior
angles are congruent.
There are some special congruency
rules for proving that triangles are congruent. Let’s have a look at those
next. The first rule that we can apply to
show that two triangles are congruent is the rule SSS, which stands for
side-side-side. Here, we have two triangles which
we can demonstrate are congruent using the SSS rule. Even though the second triangle has
been flipped, we can still see that corresponding sides are congruent. When the corresponding sides are
congruent, that means that the corresponding angles are also congruent.
The second rule is the SAS rule,
which stands for side-angle-side, where the angle is the included angle between the
two sides. Here, we can see an example of two
triangles which are congruent using the SAS rule. This rule would mean that the third
side in each triangle would also be congruent. So, this rule and the following
rules would show that the three sides are congruent.
The third congruency rule is ASA,
which stands for angle-side-angle, where the side is the included side between the
two angles. For example, our two triangles here
are congruent using this rule.
Our next rule is the
angle-angle-side rule or AAS. Here, we have to show that two
corresponding angles are congruent and any pair of corresponding sides are also
congruent in order to show that the two triangles are congruent.
Our final rule is a special-case
rule, which only applies to right triangles. It can be referred to as RHS,
standing for right angle-hypotenuse-side, or HL, which stands for hypotenuse and leg
in right triangles. In either format of this rule, we
have to show that the hypotenuse is congruent plus another side or leg of the
triangle in each triangle would be congruent and that there is a right angle.
Before we look at some example
questions, let’s go through some notation rules that we use for congruency. The first thing to note is that we
use this symbol, which looks like an equal sign with a wavy line above it, to mean
that two shapes are congruent. So, for example, we could say that
a rectangle 𝐴𝐵𝐶𝐷 is congruent to rectangle 𝐸𝐹𝐺𝐻, which brings us to the
second important point about the order of the letters used. Even without drawing out our
rectangles, we could use the order of the letters to say that the angle at 𝐴 must
be congruent to the angle at 𝐸. Equally, the angle at 𝐵 would be
congruent to the angle at 𝐹 and the same for the remaining angles in each
We can also use the notation to
help us work out the congruent sides. For example, the side 𝐴𝐵 is
congruent to side 𝐸𝐹 and the side 𝐵𝐶 is congruent to the side 𝐹𝐺. So, when we’re writing congruency
relationships, we need to pay careful attention to which sides and angles are
congruent. And when we’re given a congruency
relationship, we can use this to help us work out the corresponding sides and angles
that are congruent.
So, now, let’s have a look at some
questions involving congruent polygons.
The symbol congruent means that
the two objects are congruent. Which statement is true? Option A, triangle 𝐴𝐵𝐶 is
congruent to triangle 𝐶𝐴𝐷. Option B, triangle 𝐴𝐵𝐶 is
congruent to triangle 𝐷𝐴𝐶. Option C, triangle 𝐴𝐶𝐵 is
congruent to triangle 𝐷𝐴𝐶. Or option D, triangle 𝐵𝐶𝐴 is
congruent to triangle 𝐷𝐴𝐶.
We can see in the diagram that
we have a parallelogram which is split into two separate triangles. We can see from the markings
given that side 𝐴𝐵 is congruent to side 𝐶𝐷. We can see from the double mark
on the line that side 𝐴𝐷 is congruent to side 𝐵𝐶. We can see that both triangles
share the side 𝐴𝐶. So, this means that 𝐴𝐶 is
congruent to 𝐴𝐶. We can, therefore, say that our
two triangles are congruent, using the side-side-side congruency criterion.
In order to write a congruency
relationship between the two triangles, we need to be very careful about the
orders of the letters. In our left triangle, if we
were to travel from 𝐴 to 𝐵 and then from 𝐵 to 𝐶, we’d be travelling from the
one marking to the two marking. Then, the equivalent journey in
our other triangle would be from 𝐶 to 𝐷 along the one marking and then from 𝐷
to 𝐴 along the two marking. So, we could write the
relationship as triangle 𝐴𝐵𝐶 is congruent to triangle 𝐶𝐷𝐴.
Notice that we could also keep
the order of letters the same and write that triangle 𝐵𝐶𝐴 is congruent to
triangle 𝐷𝐴𝐶. Or we could also say that
triangle 𝐶𝐴𝐵 is congruent to triangle 𝐴𝐶𝐷. Any of these congruency
relationships would be a true statement. But only one of them appears in
our answer options. And that’s option D, triangle
𝐵𝐶𝐴 is congruent to triangle 𝐷𝐴𝐶.
In our next question, we’ll see an
example, where we’re given a congruency relationship and we need to find a missing
Given that triangle 𝐴𝐵𝐶 is
congruent to triangle 𝑋𝑌𝑍, find the measure of angle 𝐶.
So, here, we have two congruent
triangles and we’re asked to work out the missing angle, 𝐶. Here, we can use the congruency
statement to help us work out which corresponding angles would be congruent. The first angle we can look at
is angle 𝐴. And this will be congruent to
angle 𝑋 in triangle 𝑋𝑌𝑍. And as we’re told that this
angle 𝑋 is 40 degrees, this means that angle 𝐴 in triangle 𝐴𝐵𝐶 will also be
We can also see that angle 𝐶
in triangle 𝐴𝐵𝐶 is congruent to angle 𝑍 in triangle 𝑋𝑌𝑍. But we’re not given an angle
measure for angle 𝑍. So, we can’t use this directly
to help us work out angle 𝐶. Instead, we can use the fact
that the angles in a triangle add up to 180 degrees to find the measure of angle
𝐶. Therefore, the measure of angle
𝐶 is equal to 180 degrees subtract 56 degrees and subtract 40 degrees, giving
us 84 degrees. And so, our final answer is
that the measure of angle 𝐶 is 84 degrees.
Given that 𝑋𝑌𝐾𝑀 is
congruent to 𝐴𝐵𝐶𝑀, find the measure of angle 𝐾𝑀𝐶.
In this question, we have two
congruent quadrilaterals, 𝐴𝐵𝐶𝑀 on the left side of the diagram and 𝑋𝑌𝐾𝑀
on the right. We’re asked to find the measure
of angle 𝐾𝑀𝐶, which is outside of these quadrilaterals. If we knew the measure of this
angle, 𝐶𝑀𝐴, we could calculate the missing angle. We can use the congruency
statement to help us work out this angle. We could see, for example, that
angle 𝑋 in the quadrilateral 𝑋𝑌𝐾𝑀 would be congruent with angle 𝐴 in the
quadrilateral 𝐴𝐵𝐶𝑀. So, therefore, the angle 𝑀 in
quadrilateral 𝐴𝐵𝐶𝑀 is congruent to the angle 𝑀 in quadrilateral
So, therefore, the missing
angle 𝐶𝑀𝐴 in quadrilateral 𝐴𝐵𝐶𝑀 would be 53 degrees. We can use the fact that the
angles on a straight line add up to 180 degrees to work out that our angle
𝐾𝑀𝐶 is equal to 180 degrees subtract 53 degrees subtract 53 degrees. And, therefore, the measure of
angle 𝐾𝑀𝐶 is 74 degrees.
In the next question, we’ll see an
example of how we can prove that two quadrilaterals are congruent.
Are the polygons shown
We can remind ourselves that
the word congruent means the same shape and size. A better mathematical
description is that polygons are congruent if all corresponding sides and
interior angles are congruent. If we want to check if these
two quadrilaterals are congruent, we need to check all the corresponding sides
and angles to see if they’re congruent or not.
So, if we start with our sides,
with side 𝐶𝐷 on our left quadrilateral, we can see from the one marking that
this is congruent with side length 𝑂𝑃 on our quadrilateral 𝑂𝑃𝑀𝑁. We can also see that the side
𝐹𝐸 on the quadrilateral 𝐶𝐷𝐸𝐹 is congruent with side 𝑀𝑁 on the
quadrilateral 𝑃𝑀𝑁𝑂. We can see that side 𝐶𝐹 is
congruent with side 𝑃𝑀 and side 𝐷𝐸 is congruent to side 𝑂𝑁. So, we’ve demonstrated that we
have four corresponding sets of congruent sides. However, this isn’t sufficient
to show that two polygons are congruent. After all, we could, for
example, have a rectangle and a parallelogram which have congruent sides. But these clearly aren’t the
same shape. So, we need to check the angles
in our polygons.
So, looking at angle 𝐶 in
quadrilateral 𝐶𝐷𝐸𝐹, we could say that this is congruent with angle 𝑀 in
quadrilateral 𝑃𝑀𝑁𝑂. Equally, angle 𝐷, which is
labelled as 104 degrees, would be congruent with angle 𝑁, which is also 104
degrees. We can see that angle 𝐸 of 76
degrees is congruent with angle 𝑂 of 76 degrees. And our final angle 𝐹 would be
congruent with angle 𝑃. So now, we’ve shown that we
also have four corresponding sets of congruent angles. This fits with our definition
of congruent polygons. So, yes, these polygons are
In our final question, we’ll see
how we can use congruency to help us work out missing lengths in polygons.
The two quadrilaterals in the
given figure are congruent. Work out the perimeter of
In this question, we’re not
given a congruency statement to help us work out the corresponding congruent
sides. But we can apply a little bit
of logic here. We can begin by noticing that
these shapes are a reflection of each other. We can see that angle 𝐴 in our
quadrilateral 𝐴𝐵𝐶𝐷 would be congruent with angle 𝐸 in quadrilateral
𝐸𝐹𝐺𝐻. Angle 𝐵 would be congruent
with angle 𝐻. Angle 𝐶 is congruent with
angle 𝐺. And angle 𝐷 is congruent with
angle 𝐹. We can, therefore, say that
𝐴𝐵𝐶𝐷 is congruent to 𝐸𝐻𝐺𝐹.
In order to work out the
perimeter of 𝐴𝐵𝐶𝐷, we need to find some of the missing sides on this
quadrilateral. We could see that the side 𝐵𝐶
would correspond with the side 𝐺𝐻, meaning that 𝐵𝐶 would also be 4.2. The last unknown side 𝐷𝐶 is
corresponding with side 𝐹𝐺. So, it will be of length
three. Notice that as these two shapes
are congruent, this means that they’ll have the same perimeter. To find the perimeter of
𝐴𝐵𝐶𝐷, we add up the lengths around the outside. So, we have 4.2 plus 4.1 plus
1.4 plus three, which is equal to 12.7. And we weren’t given any units
in the question. So, we don’t have any in the
We can now summarize what we’ve
learned in this video. We learned that polygons are
congruent when they have the same number of sides and all corresponding sides and
interior angles are congruent. Congruent polygons are the same
shape and size, but can be rotated or a mirror image of each other. We learned that there are special
congruency criterion for showing that two triangles are congruent. And finally, we learned the very
important fact about the ordering of letters in a congruency statement as this order
indicates the corresponding sides and angles which are congruent.