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Question Video: Recalling the Definition of “Eukaryotic” Biology

Organisms belonging to kingdom Fungi are eukaryotic. Which of the following best explains what this means? [A] Their cells have the majority of their genetic material contained in a plasmid. [B] Their cells have the majority of their genetic material contained in a single chromosome loop. [C] Their cells have the majority of their genetic material freely moving within the cytoplasm. [D] Their cells have the majority of their genetic material contained in a membrane-bound nucleus.

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Video Transcript

Organisms belonging to kingdom Fungi are eukaryotic. Which of the following best explains what this means? (A) Their cells have the majority of their genetic material contained in a plasmid. (B) Their cells have the majority of their genetic material contained in a single chromosome loop. (C) Their cells have the majority of their genetic material freely moving within the cytoplasm. (D) Their cells have the majority of their genetic material contained in a membrane-bound nucleus.

We know from this question that fungi are eukaryotic, but what does this mean? To explain this, let’s first discuss the three domains of life: Eukarya, Archaea, and Bacteria.

The domain of Eukarya is defined as having membrane-bound organelles, such as the nucleus, where the majority of their DNA is stored as multiple linear chromosomes. Eukarya are, as the name suggests, eukaryotic. Archaea and Bacteria are prokaryotic, meaning they do not have membrane-bound organelles or nuclei. In general, prokaryotes have their DNA exist as a single chromosome loop contained in the cytoplasm.

Now let’s look at these answer choices again and eliminate the incorrect ones.

Answer choice (A) is incorrect because the majority of genetic material in a eukaryote is contained within the nucleus. Plasmids are generally found in prokaryotic organisms and contain extrachromosomal DNA.

Answer choice (B) is also incorrect because eukaryotes generally have their DNA exist as multiple linear chromosomes, whereas prokaryotes generally have a single chromosomal loop.

Answer choice (C) is incorrect because eukaryotes contain their DNA within a nucleus and not freely moving within the cytoplasm. This is a characteristic of prokaryotic DNA.

Answer choice (D) is correct because eukaryotes contain their DNA within a nucleus.

Therefore, the term “eukaryotic” is best explained by answer choice (D). Their cells have the majority of their genetic material contained in a membrane-bound nucleus.

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