Video: Making 10

In this video, we will learn how to use pictures and addition equations to show all the ways to make the number 10.

11:01

Video Transcript

Making 10

In this video, we’re going to learn how to use pictures and also addition equations to show all the ways to make the number 10. Now, making 10 is a really interesting thing to do because the number 10 is all around us. Sometimes a good place to start when we first begin thinking about the number 10 is our fingers because, of course, we have 10 of them.

To help us model the different ways to make 10, let’s imagine we’ve got two paint pots to dip our fingers into. One containing orange paint and the other full of pink paint. Now, how can we make the number 10 using fingerprints? We need to find all the possible ways to make 10. So perhaps the best place to start is not to use the orange paint at all and just dip all of our fingers into the pink paint. None of our fingers are orange. That’s the number zero, isn’t it? Zero orange and 10 pink fingers make 10 altogether. We could recall this number fact in a part–whole model like this. We could even press our messy fingerprints onto a ten frame. These are all the ways of showing the same number fact. Zero plus 10 makes 10.

How else could we make 10? To make sure that we find all the possible number facts, we could just change one small thing at a time and build up slowly. What if we clean off one of our fingers and instead of dipping it in the pink paint we could color it orange? Now, we can see that one orange and nine pink fingerprints make 10 too. We’ve modeled another way to make 10. One and nine make 10.

So if we were using paint pots, we could continue doing the same thing. Clean another finger, make it orange instead of pink, and then count to find the number fact. We have one, two orange fingerprints, and the rest are pink. How many is that? One, two, three, four, five, six, seven, eight. We’ve found that two plus another eight is a way of making 10. We’ve found three different ways so far. And if we look closely, we can see a pattern. If we look at the answer in our number sentences or equations, we can see that it’s always 10.

Well, we know this is going to be true because we’re looking for ways to make the number 10. We only have 10 fingers and 10 spaces on the ten frame. So we know the next pair of numbers we find are going to have a total of 10 too. Let’s look carefully at the first number in our addition. Remember, this represents the number of orange fingerprints. Zero, one, two. What do we notice? These numbers are increasing by one each time. This is because we’re adding one more finger each time, aren’t we? So we would expect the first number in our next pair of numbers to be zero, one, two, three.

Now, what pattern can we see in the second number in each addition? Remember, this number represents the number of pink fingerprints. So we start with 10, which becomes nine, eight. These numbers are decreasing by one each time. 10, nine, eight. What number would we expect to be next? Seven. Three and seven make 10. So does four and six.

The next facts are good one to remember because we know we have five fingers on each hand. Five plus five makes 10. See if you can spot the other ways to make 10 before we say them. What comes next? Six plus four makes 10. So does seven plus three, eight plus two, nine plus one. Can you see what the last one is going to be? 10 orange fingerprints, no pink fingerprints. A very messy table and a final number bond of 10 plus zero equals 10. So we’ve found 11 pairs of numbers that make 10.

It’s time to put into practice what we’ve learned now. Let’s answer some questions where we have to use what we’ve found out.

There are lots of ways to make 10. What is the missing sum?

This problem is all about making the number 10 by adding two numbers together. And the question starts off by telling us that there are lots of ways to make 10. We can see them all in the picture. It shows us 11 different ways to make 10. Each different way is shown by a cube train. And these lines of cubes are made from blue and red cubes.

If we count the number of cubes in the first cube train, we can see that there are 10 of them. And because all of the cube trains are the same length, we know that they all add up to 10. If we look at the first line of cubes, we can see that there are zero red cubes but 10 blue cubes. And the number fact that represents this is written by the side. Zero plus 10 go together to make 10. So do one and nine, two and eight, three and seven, four and six, five and five. But what comes next?

The question asks us what is the missing sum. Another word for sum is addition. We’re looking for two numbers that are represented by this line of cubes. To help us find the answer, let’s look for a pattern. If we look at the first number in our addition, we can see that this increases by one each time. This is because we’re adding one more red cube. Zero, one, two, three, four, five. What’s gonna come next? Six.

Looks like our missing sum is going to be six plus something. If we look down all the second numbers in our additions, can you see a pattern? 10, nine, eight, seven, six, five. These numbers are decreasing by one each time. This is because this number represents the blue cubes in each cube train. And we’re taking away one blue cube each time and replacing it with a red cube. The number of blue cubes decreases by one. 10, nine, eight, seven, six, five. We know the next number is going to be one less than five, which is four.

Now, there’s another way that we could find our missing sum, and that’s to count the number of cubes in each color. Let’s check whether this shows six plus four. We have one, two, three, four, five, six red cubes — that gives us our first number, six — and one, two, three, four blue cubes. This question shows us lots of pairs of numbers that make 10. And the missing addition that we were looking for is six plus four.

There are 10 fish. Fill in the numbers to find another way to make 10.

In this question, we can see two additions shown using pictures. And both additions make a total of 10. How do we know this? Well, because the first sentence tells us there are 10 fish, but also because we can see that the final picture in our number sentences or equations shows the number 10. Our first number sentence is complete. And if we look carefully, we can see that each picture’s labeled, but we can count the fish just to check. One, two, three, four, five, six, seven plus one, two, three equals one, two, three, four, five, six, seven, eight, nine, 10. Seven and three are a pair of numbers that go together to make 10.

And we could model this in different ways. For example, we could split up a ten frame to show seven plus three. Or if we had 10 counting beads on a string, we could move three to the other end, to show that a group of seven and a group of three go together to make 10.

Now, if we look at our second addition, we can see that some of the numbers are missing. What plus what equals 10? The question asks us to fill in the numbers to find this other way to make 10. How many fish are there in our first picture? Let’s start at the top and work our way down. One, two, three, four, five fish. Now, what do we add to five to make 10?

We could find the answer by counting the fish in the second picture. But let’s use our models to help. If we have five pink counters, how many orange counters are we going to need? We’ll need the same number of orange counters to make a row underneath. In other words, we’re going to need another five. Can we model five plus five using our beads? Yes, we can. And if we count the fish in our second picture from top to bottom, we have one, two, three, four, five fish altogether.

Just because the fish in the second picture make a different shape doesn’t mean there’s a different number of them. They’re just arranged differently. So, as well as seven plus three, five plus five equals 10. Our missing numbers are five and five.

So what have we learned in this video? We’ve learned how to show all the ways to make 10 using pictures, models, and equations or number sentences.

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