In this video, we’re going to learn
how to use pictures and also addition equations to show all the ways to make the
number 10. Now, making 10 is a really
interesting thing to do because the number 10 is all around us. Sometimes a good place to start
when we first begin thinking about the number 10 is our fingers because, of course,
we have 10 of them.
To help us model the different ways
to make 10, let’s imagine we’ve got two paint pots to dip our fingers into. One containing orange paint and the
other full of pink paint. Now, how can we make the number 10
using fingerprints? We need to find all the possible
ways to make 10. So perhaps the best place to start
is not to use the orange paint at all and just dip all of our fingers into the pink
paint. None of our fingers are orange. That’s the number zero, isn’t
it? Zero orange and 10 pink fingers
make 10 altogether. We could recall this number fact in
a part–whole model like this. We could even press our messy
fingerprints onto a ten frame. These are all the ways of showing
the same number fact. Zero plus 10 makes 10.
How else could we make 10? To make sure that we find all the
possible number facts, we could just change one small thing at a time and build up
slowly. What if we clean off one of our
fingers and instead of dipping it in the pink paint we could color it orange? Now, we can see that one orange and
nine pink fingerprints make 10 too. We’ve modeled another way to make
10. One and nine make 10.
So if we were using paint pots, we
could continue doing the same thing. Clean another finger, make it
orange instead of pink, and then count to find the number fact. We have one, two orange
fingerprints, and the rest are pink. How many is that? One, two, three, four, five, six,
seven, eight. We’ve found that two plus another
eight is a way of making 10. We’ve found three different ways so
far. And if we look closely, we can see
a pattern. If we look at the answer in our
number sentences or equations, we can see that it’s always 10.
Well, we know this is going to be
true because we’re looking for ways to make the number 10. We only have 10 fingers and 10
spaces on the ten frame. So we know the next pair of numbers
we find are going to have a total of 10 too. Let’s look carefully at the first
number in our addition. Remember, this represents the
number of orange fingerprints. Zero, one, two. What do we notice? These numbers are increasing by one
each time. This is because we’re adding one
more finger each time, aren’t we? So we would expect the first number
in our next pair of numbers to be zero, one, two, three.
Now, what pattern can we see in the
second number in each addition? Remember, this number represents
the number of pink fingerprints. So we start with 10, which becomes
nine, eight. These numbers are decreasing by one
each time. 10, nine, eight. What number would we expect to be
next? Seven. Three and seven make 10. So does four and six.
The next facts are good one to
remember because we know we have five fingers on each hand. Five plus five makes 10. See if you can spot the other ways
to make 10 before we say them. What comes next? Six plus four makes 10. So does seven plus three, eight
plus two, nine plus one. Can you see what the last one is
going to be? 10 orange fingerprints, no pink
fingerprints. A very messy table and a final
number bond of 10 plus zero equals 10. So we’ve found 11 pairs of numbers
that make 10.
It’s time to put into practice what
we’ve learned now. Let’s answer some questions where
we have to use what we’ve found out.
There are lots of ways to make
10. What is the missing sum?
This problem is all about making
the number 10 by adding two numbers together. And the question starts off by
telling us that there are lots of ways to make 10. We can see them all in the
picture. It shows us 11 different ways to
make 10. Each different way is shown by a
cube train. And these lines of cubes are made
from blue and red cubes.
If we count the number of cubes in
the first cube train, we can see that there are 10 of them. And because all of the cube trains
are the same length, we know that they all add up to 10. If we look at the first line of
cubes, we can see that there are zero red cubes but 10 blue cubes. And the number fact that represents
this is written by the side. Zero plus 10 go together to make
10. So do one and nine, two and eight,
three and seven, four and six, five and five. But what comes next?
The question asks us what is the
missing sum. Another word for sum is
addition. We’re looking for two numbers that
are represented by this line of cubes. To help us find the answer, let’s
look for a pattern. If we look at the first number in
our addition, we can see that this increases by one each time. This is because we’re adding one
more red cube. Zero, one, two, three, four,
five. What’s gonna come next? Six.
Looks like our missing sum is going
to be six plus something. If we look down all the second
numbers in our additions, can you see a pattern? 10, nine, eight, seven, six,
five. These numbers are decreasing by one
each time. This is because this number
represents the blue cubes in each cube train. And we’re taking away one blue cube
each time and replacing it with a red cube. The number of blue cubes decreases
by one. 10, nine, eight, seven, six,
five. We know the next number is going to
be one less than five, which is four.
Now, there’s another way that we
could find our missing sum, and that’s to count the number of cubes in each
color. Let’s check whether this shows six
plus four. We have one, two, three, four,
five, six red cubes — that gives us our first number, six — and one, two, three,
four blue cubes. This question shows us lots of
pairs of numbers that make 10. And the missing addition that we
were looking for is six plus four.
There are 10 fish. Fill in the numbers to find another
way to make 10.
In this question, we can see two
additions shown using pictures. And both additions make a total of
10. How do we know this? Well, because the first sentence
tells us there are 10 fish, but also because we can see that the final picture in
our number sentences or equations shows the number 10. Our first number sentence is
complete. And if we look carefully, we can
see that each picture’s labeled, but we can count the fish just to check. One, two, three, four, five, six,
seven plus one, two, three equals one, two, three, four, five, six, seven, eight,
nine, 10. Seven and three are a pair of
numbers that go together to make 10.
And we could model this in
different ways. For example, we could split up a
ten frame to show seven plus three. Or if we had 10 counting beads on a
string, we could move three to the other end, to show that a group of seven and a
group of three go together to make 10.
Now, if we look at our second
addition, we can see that some of the numbers are missing. What plus what equals 10? The question asks us to fill in the
numbers to find this other way to make 10. How many fish are there in our
first picture? Let’s start at the top and work our
way down. One, two, three, four, five
fish. Now, what do we add to five to make
We could find the answer by
counting the fish in the second picture. But let’s use our models to
help. If we have five pink counters, how
many orange counters are we going to need? We’ll need the same number of
orange counters to make a row underneath. In other words, we’re going to need
another five. Can we model five plus five using
our beads? Yes, we can. And if we count the fish in our
second picture from top to bottom, we have one, two, three, four, five fish
Just because the fish in the second
picture make a different shape doesn’t mean there’s a different number of them. They’re just arranged
differently. So, as well as seven plus three,
five plus five equals 10. Our missing numbers are five and
So what have we learned in this
video? We’ve learned how to show all the
ways to make 10 using pictures, models, and equations or number sentences.