In eukaryotes, what cellular
organelle is the site of translation? (A) Mitochondria, (B) the nucleus,
(C) ribosomes, (D) the cytoplasm, (E) the cell membrane.
In order for a gene in DNA to be
converted into a protein, it needs to go through two steps. The first step is called
transcription and involves the conversion of DNA into mRNA. The second step is called
translation, where the sequence of mRNA is converted into a sequence of amino acids
to form a polypeptide. This polypeptide can then go on to
fold into a protein with a specific shape and function.
In eukaryotes, the site of
transcription is inside the nucleus. After transcription, the mRNA is
exported from the nucleus and enters the cytoplasm where it can be translated. Here, the mRNA can interact with an
organelle called the ribosome. The ribosome is a large complex of
proteins and RNA that work together with specialized tRNA molecules to convert the
mRNA sequence into an amino acid sequence or a polypeptide.
Therefore, the cellular organelle
that is the site of translation is given by answer choice (C), ribosomes.