Lesson Video: Subtracting Numbers up to 10 Mathematics • Kindergarten

In this video, we will learn how to find the missing difference in a subtraction equation when subtracting within 10.

13:05

Video Transcript

Subtracting Numbers up to 10

In this video, we’re going to learn how to find the answer to a subtraction question when we’re subtracting with numbers up to 10.

Let’s start with this short line. Or is it a rectangle? Well, this is much more than just a short line or a rectangle. If we write a number either side of it, we can see that it’s actually a symbol. It represents something. And you remember what this line represents in math. It’s the subtraction symbol, and it shows that we need to subtract or take away. And our numbers tell us what to take away from what. Our first number is eight. This shows the number that we’re starting with, the number that we’re taking away from.

To help us, let’s show eight using a line of cubes. One, two, three, four, five, six, seven, eight. So, we have eight to begin with. Now we have this symbol that we talked about. It tells us that we need to subtract or take away a number of these cubes. Although we started with eight, we’re going to end up with less than eight because we’re going to take some of these cubes away. How many do we take away? Well, that’s what our second number tells us. We need to take away or subtract five.

How could we show this using our eight cubes? What if we pick up and actually take away five of the cubes? One, two, three, four, five. We started with eight cubes, and we took away or subtracted five cubes. How many cubes are left? One, two, three. Eight take away five equals three. And we know this because five and three are two numbers that go together to make eight. Another way we could model a subtraction might be to use a 10 frame and counters. Let’s use a 10 frame to help find the answer to seven subtract two.

Remember that the first number in a subtraction is the number that we’re starting with. The number that we’re going to take away from. Our first number here is seven, so we’re going to need to start with seven. Let’s put seven counters on our 10 frame. Five across the top, six, seven. So, we start with seven. And remember, this symbol here tells us we need to take away a number. We’re going to have to take away some of our seven counters. And our second number tells us how many to take away.

We need to start with seven and then take away two. Let’s cross them out as we take them away. One, two. We’re left with just this top row of counters here. And we know that a row of counters on a 10 frame is worth five. Seven take away two equals five. And we know this because five and two more make seven.

Do you think you can try answering some questions now where we have to take away numbers up to 10? Let’s have a go, and we’ll see how good you are at subtraction.

Subtract to find the missing number. Nine take away four equals what.

In this question, we need to subtract or take away to find the answer. Now there are three clues that show us we need to do this. Can you spot them? The first one is in this sentence; in fact, it’s the first word “subtract.” Our second clue is in the picture. What can you see that shows us we need to take away? Well, our picture shows some counters, but some of the counters have been crossed out. This shows us that our number is getting less. We’ve taken away these counters. And our final clue is in this number sentence here. Can you spot what tells us it’s a subtraction?

This little line here is the subtraction symbol. And so, we read this calculation as nine take away four. So, what is nine take away four? Well, we’re given this picture here to help us. Now the number nine in our subtraction tells us the number that we need to start with. Can you see how many counters we started with in the picture? There are one, two, three, four, five, six, seven, eight, nine counters.

But something’s happened to some of our counters; they’ve been crossed out. We need to take them away from our nine counters and forget about them. Let’s count how many counters we’ve taken away. One, two, three, four. This is where the number four comes from in our number sentence. We started with nine counters and we took away or subtracted four counters. So, what’s the answer? How many counters do we have left? There are one, two, three, four, five counters left over. We started with nine and we took away four. We’re left with five. Nine subtract four equals five.

Subtract to find the missing number. Seven take away four equals what.

When we start with a number and subtract or take away from it, that number gets less, it gets smaller. And in this question, we’re making a number get smaller too. We need to find the answer to seven take away four. Can you see why we describe this calculation like this? Let’s point to each different part as we say it. Seven take away four. Now we’ve read the number sentence. But what does each part of it actually mean? Seven is the number we start with. Before we do any taking away at all, we have seven. And can you see in the picture there are seven counters ready for us to start?

We know that there are always five counters on the top row of a 10 frame. So that’s five, six, seven. Now this symbol here tells us that we need to take away or subtract. What does it mean when we take away or subtract from a number? Well, we remove part of the number; we take it away. And so, the number that we started with becomes less. Well, we have seven counters here on our 10 frame. By the end, we’re going to have less than seven. We’re going to take some of them away. How many do we need to take away? Our second number tells us this. We need to take away four.

Now, how could we show on our 10 frame that we’ve taken away four? If we had a real 10 frame in front of us, perhaps we could pick up four counters one by one and put them in our pockets. But this is a picture of a 10 frame. Perhaps, we could cross them out. Remember, we need to take away four. One, two, three, four. Our 10 frame is now four less than it was. There were seven counters on it, but now there are one, two, three left. We know that three and four more make seven altogether. And so, if we start with seven and we take away four, we’re going to be left with three. Seven take away four equals three.

Take away counters to find the missing number. Six subtract three equals what.

In this question, we need to take away or subtract to find the answer. And this symbol in our number sentence shows us this. It’s the subtraction symbol. It shows us that we need to find three less than six. In other words, we need to start with six and take away three from it. Now we could try to find the answer in our heads or maybe draw a little sketch to help. But in this question, we’re told to take away counters to find the missing number. And we’re given this line of counters. Now without counting the counters, do you think you know how many there are?

We said that the first number in our subtraction is six. This is the number we begin with. So do you think it might make sense if we had six counters? Let’s see. One, two, three, four, five, six. So, we’ve got our six counters to begin with, and now we need to take away three of them. Now, before we do this on the screen, let’s really put your brains at work. Without drawing anything or writing anything, I want you to look at these six counters and I want you to imagine taking away three of them. Can you see how many there are going to be left? See if you can predict what the answer is going to be.

With each counter that we take away, we could cross them through. So, we need to take away one, two, three. And this leaves us with one, two, three. Six take away three equal three. We know that if we add three and another three together, we get six. So just like in this subtraction, if we start with six and then we take away three, we’ll be left with three. We’ve taken away counters to help find the missing number. Six subtract three equals three.

Nine subtract seven equals what.

There are no words in this question, just some numbers and symbols. Let’s go through them one by one to try and work out what we’re being asked. First, we have the number nine. This is the number we’re starting with. Whatever we’re going to have to do in this calculation, we’re going to need to do it to the number nine. So, why don’t we model the number nine? Let’s make a line of nine. Here are nine cubes. Now, what are we going to do with our nine cubes?

This symbol here tells us we need to take something away from them. So, although we have started with the number nine, our answer is going to be less than nine. We need to subtract or take away something from our nine. And how many do we need to take away? We need to subtract seven. Do you know how many cubes are going to be left? Let’s subtract seven of our cubes. One, two, three, four, five, six, seven. So, what do you think our missing number is going to be? It’s the number that we have left if we take away seven from nine. And we can see that there are two left because seven and two make nine altogether. And so, we know nine subtract seven equals two.

So, what have we learned in this video? We have learned how to find the answer to subtractions using numbers that are less than 10.

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