### Video Transcript

Consider the initial value problem
π¦ prime is three π₯, where π¦ at π₯ is equal to zero is equal to one. Use Eulerβs method with π equal to
five steps on the closed interval zero, one to find π¦ at π₯ is equal to one.

Weβve been given a differential
equation π¦ prime is three π₯ so that π¦ prime, which is dπ¦ by dπ₯, is equal to
three π₯. We have an initial value π¦ at π₯
is equal to zero is equal to one, which means that our starting point π₯ zero, π¦
zero is zero one. We have π equals to five steps and
the closed interval zero, one. This means that zero is less than
or equal to π₯ is less than or equal to one. And weβre asked to use Eulerβs
method to find the value of π¦ at π₯ is equal to one. In order to use this formula, we
need to know the value of β, which is the step size. And thatβs given by the interval
width divided by the number of steps. In our case, the interval width is
a maximum π₯ minus the minimum π₯ which is one minus zero divided by the number of
steps which is five. Thatβs one over five, which is
0.2.

Letβs just sketch our interval, so
we can refer back to it in our calculations. Since our step size is 0.2 and π₯
zero is equal to zero, π₯ one is equal to 0.2. Similarly, π₯ two is equal to 0.4,
π₯ three is 0.6, and π₯ four is 0.8, and π₯ five, which is our maximum value is
one. Remember, weβre trying to find the
value of π¦ when π₯ is equal to one. And thatβs π¦ of π₯ five. And we call that π¦ five. In order to use the formula, we
need to know what our function π is. And from our differential equation,
we can see that dπ¦ by dπ₯ is equal to π of π₯ is three π₯. So if this is a function of π₯
only, this means we can delete the second variable π¦ in our function π in Eulerβs
formula, so that our formula is π¦ π is equal to π¦ π minus one plus β times π of
π₯ π minus one, where π of π₯ π is three π₯ π. So we have everything we need to
use the formula.

We know that π¦ zero is equal to
one, so we can use the formula to calculate π¦ one. And thatβs equal to π¦ zero plus β
times π of π₯ zero. We know the value of π¦ zero, which
is one, and we know the value of β, which is 0.2. So we need to work out π of π₯
zero. From our differential equation,
thatβs equal to three times π₯ zero, which is three times zero, which is zero so
that π¦ one is equal to one plus 0.2 times zero, which is one. And we can use this in our formula
to calculate π¦ two, which is equal to π¦ one plus β times π of π₯ one. And we need to work out π of π₯
one. Thatβs equal to three times π₯ one
from our differential equation. And from our interval, we know that
π₯ one is equal to 0.2. So we have three times 0.2 is equal
to π of π₯ one, and thatβs 0.6.

So π¦ two is equal to one plus 0.2
times 0.6 which is equal to 1.12. We use this to find π¦ three, which
is π¦ two plus β times π of π₯ two, where π of π₯ two is three times π₯ two and π₯
two is 0.4, so that π of π₯ two is 1.2. π¦ three is then 1.12 plus 0.2
times 1.2, which is 1.36. We use this to calculate π¦ four
which is π¦ three plus β times π of π₯ three and π of π₯ three is three times π₯
three. From our interval, π₯ three is
0.6. So thatβs three times 0.6, which is
1.8. And we have π¦ four equal to 1.36
plus 0.2 times 1.8, which is 1.72. Now, we use this in our final step
to calculate π¦ five, where π¦ five is equal to π¦ four plus β times π of π₯ four
which is three π₯ four. And since π₯ four is 0.8 from our
interval, π of π₯ four is three times 0.8, which is 2.4. So π¦ five is equal to 1.72 plus
0.2 times 2.4, which is 2.2. Remember that π¦ five is equal to
π¦ at π₯ is equal to one, which weβve just calculated as 2.2. So π¦ at π₯ is equal to one is
2.2.